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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 313;

Prevalence and Determinants of Suboptimal Vitamin D Levels in a Multiethnic Asian Population

Singapore Eye Research Institute, the Academia, 20 College Road, Discovery Tower Level 6, Singapore 169856, Singapore
Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Academic Clinical Program, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore
Department of Ophthalmology, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
Centre for Quantitative Medicine, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 169856, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: Current Issues and New Perspectives)
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This population-based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels (assessed using circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)) in a multi-ethnic sample of Asian adults. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 1139 Chinese, Malay and Indians (40–80 years) were stratified into normal (≥30 ng/mL), and suboptimal (including insufficiency and deficiency, <30 ng/mL) based on the 2011 Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of demographic, lifestyle and clinical risk factors with the outcome. Of the 1139 participants, 25(OH)D concentration was suboptimal in 76.1%. In multivariable models, age ≤65 years (compared to age >65 years), Malay and Indian ethnicities (compared to Chinese ethnicity), and higher body mass index, HbA1c, education and income levels were associated with suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration (p < 0.05). In a population-based sample of Asian adults, approximately 75% had suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration. Targeted interventions and stricter reinforcements of existing guidelines for vitamin D supplementation are needed for groups at risk of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: ageing population; ethnicity; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D insufficiency ageing population; ethnicity; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D insufficiency

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Man, R.E.K.; Li, L.-J.; Cheng, C.-Y.; Wong, T.Y.; Lamoureux, E.; Sabanayagam, C. Prevalence and Determinants of Suboptimal Vitamin D Levels in a Multiethnic Asian Population. Nutrients 2017, 9, 313.

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