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Vitamins and Microelement Bioavailability in Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

Department of Nephrology, Transplantology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk 80-211, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 282;
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) predisposes one to either deficiency or toxic excess of different micronutrients. The knowledge on micronutrients—specifically water-soluble vitamins and trace elements—in CKD is very limited. Consequently, current guidelines and recommendations are mostly based on expert opinions or poor-quality evidence. Abnormalities of micronutrient resources in CKD develop for several reasons. Dietary restrictions and anorexia lead to an insufficient micronutrient intake, while diuretics use and renal replacement therapy lead to their excessive losses. Absorption is unpredictable, and metabolism impaired. Better understanding of the micronutrient needs of CKD patients could have an impact on many complications linked to vitamin and trace element disorders, including high mortality, increased risk of atherosclerosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, anemia, polyneuropathy, encephalopathy, weakness and fragility, muscle cramps, bone disease, depression, or insomnia. Here, we summarize the up-to-date knowledge on micronutrient resources in different stages of CKD, and share our experience with the assessment of micronutrient status. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin; dialysis; malnutrition vitamin; dialysis; malnutrition
MDPI and ACS Style

Jankowska, M.; Rutkowski, B.; Dębska-Ślizień, A. Vitamins and Microelement Bioavailability in Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease. Nutrients 2017, 9, 282.

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