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Open AccessArticle

Development and Validation of the Food Liking Questionnaire in a French-Canadian Population

Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, 2440 Hochelaga Boulevard, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
School of Psychology, Laval University, 2325 rue des Bibliothèques, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1337;
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake, Trends, and Determinants)
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire assessing food liking in a French-Canadian population. A questionnaire was developed, in which participants were asked to rate their degree of liking of 50 food items. An expert panel evaluated the content validity. For the validation study, 150 men and women completed the questionnaire twice. An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was performed to assess the number of subscales of the questionnaire. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the subscales were evaluated. Concurrent validity was assessed through correlations between liking scores and self-reported frequencies of consumption. Comments from the experts led to changes in the list of foods included in the questionnaire. The EFA revealed a two-factor structure for the questionnaire (i.e., savory and sweet foods) and led to the removal of nine items, resulting in a 32-item questionnaire. The two subscales revealed good internal consistency (Cronbach alphas: 0.85 and 0.89) and test-retest reliability (p = 0.84 and 0.86). The questionnaire demonstrated adequate concurrent validity, with moderate correlations between food liking and self-reported frequency of consumption (r = 0.19–0.39, ps < 0.05). This new Food Liking Questionnaire assessing liking of a variety of savory and sweet foods demonstrated good psychometric properties in every validation step. This questionnaire will be useful to explore the role of food liking and its interactions with other factors in predicting eating behaviors and energy intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: food liking; questionnaire; development; validation; French; Canada food liking; questionnaire; development; validation; French; Canada
MDPI and ACS Style

Carbonneau, E.; Bradette-Laplante, M.; Lamarche, B.; Provencher, V.; Bégin, C.; Robitaille, J.; Desroches, S.; Vohl, M.-C.; Corneau, L.; Lemieux, S. Development and Validation of the Food Liking Questionnaire in a French-Canadian Population. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1337.

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