Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for hypertension. Methods: We assessed 8155 participants in a community-based program to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and blood pressure (BP) and the influence of vitamin D supplementation on hypertension. Participants were provided vitamin D supplements to reach a target serum 25(OH)D > 100 nmol/L. A nested case-control study was conducted to examine the effect of achieving physiological vitamin D status in those who were hypertensive and not taking BP-lowering medication, and hypertensive participants that initiated BP-lowering medication after program entry. Results: At baseline, 592 participants (7.3%) were hypertensive; of those, 71% were no longer hypertensive at follow-up (12 ± 3 months later). There was a significant negative association between BP and serum 25(OH)D level (systolic BP: coefficient = −0.07, p
< 0.001; diastolic BP: coefficient = −0.1, p
< 0.001). Reduced mean systolic (−18 vs. −14 mmHg) and diastolic (−12 vs. −12 mmHg) BP, pulse pressure (−5 vs. −1 mmHg) and mean arterial pressure (−14 vs. −13 mmHg) were not significantly different between hypertensive participants who did and did not take BP-lowering medication. Conclusion: Improved serum 25(OH)D concentrations in hypertensive individuals who were vitamin D insufficient were associated with improved control of systolic and diastolic BP.
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