Next Article in Journal
Vitamin D and Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Next Article in Special Issue
Leptin and Physical Activity in Adult Patients with Anorexia Nervosa: Failure to Demonstrate a Simple Linear Association
Previous Article in Journal
Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Indicators of Mental Health: An Analysis of the Canadian Health Measures Survey
Previous Article in Special Issue
Vitamin E Modifies High-Fat Diet-Induced Increase of DNA Strand Breaks, and Changes in Expression and DNA Methylation of Dnmt1 and MLH1 in C57BL/6J Male Mice
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1115;

Effects of Maternal Low-Energy Diet during Gestation on Intestinal Morphology, Disaccharidase Activity, and Immune Response to Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Pig Offspring

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, No. 211, Huimin Road, Wenjiang District, Chengdu 611130, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology: Nutrition, Exercise and Adiposity Relationships)
Full-Text   |   PDF [6649 KB, uploaded 13 October 2017]   |  


Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring’s intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233.56 ± 2.77 kg) were allocated to two dietary treatment groups; a control diet (CON) group and a low-energy diet (LED) group. The nutrient levels of the CON were based on the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012), and contained 3.40 MCal digestible energy (DE)/kg diet and 7.3% crude protein; while the LED contained 3.00 MCal DE/kg diet. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. Intestine samples were collected from the pigs’ offspring at birth, and at weaning (day 28 post-birth). At weaning, male pigs from control and LED groups were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 μg/kg body weight) or saline (n = 6), and sacrificed at 4 h post-injection to collect blood, intestine and digesta samples for biochemical analysis. The results indicated that the maternal LED markedly decreased the BW, small intestinal weight, and the ratio of jejunum and ileum villus height to crypt depth in the offspring. Moreover, the activities of lactase and sucrase in newborn piglets’ intestine, and sucrase and maltase in weaning piglet intestine were markedly decreased by the maternal LED. In addition, maternal LED significantly increased the mRNA relative expression of ileal IL-6 and TNF-α in newborn piglets. Plasma IL-1β concentration and colonic Escherichia coli amount were affected by maternal diet (p < 0.05) and LPS challenge (p < 0.001). Maternal LED significant increased the mRNA relative expression of ileal TLR-4, IL-1β and NF-κB as well as decreased ZO-1 in weaning pigs after LPS challenge (p < 0.05). In conclusion, decreasing energy intake could suppress the offspring’s intestinal digestion and absorption function, and increase the susceptibility of weaning piglets to LPS challenge. View Full-Text
Keywords: low energy diet; intestinal; immunity; maternal; offspring low energy diet; intestinal; immunity; maternal; offspring

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Y.; Mou, D.; Hu, L.; Zhen, J.; Che, L.; Fang, Z.; Xu, S.; Lin, Y.; Feng, B.; Li, J.; Wu, D. Effects of Maternal Low-Energy Diet during Gestation on Intestinal Morphology, Disaccharidase Activity, and Immune Response to Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Pig Offspring. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1115.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top