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Open AccessArticle

Intestinal Production of Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase 2 Antibodies in Patients with Diagnosis Other Than Celiac Disease

1
European Laboratory for the Investigation of Food Induced Disease (ELFID), University Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
Institute for Maternal and Child Health―IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo” Trieste, 34137 Trieste, Italy
3
Department of Medical Translational Science, Section of Paediatrics, University Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
4
Department of Reproductive, Developmental and Public Health Sciences, University of Trieste, 34137 Trieste, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101050
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
It has been hypothesized that gluten-dependent production of anti-tissue-transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2) antibodies may occur only at an intestinal level. We have investigated intestinal production of anti-TG2 antibodies in 136 patients with normal serum levels of anti-TG2 antibodies and normal duodenal mucosa. Intestinal deposits of anti-TG2 antibodies were evaluated by immunofluorescence and anti-TG2 antibodies released in organ culture supernatants measured by ELISA. Intestinal antibody libraries were obtained from 10 subjects. Immunohistochemistry for CD25+, CD3+, and TCR-γδ+ was assessed in subjects with positive (n = 32) and negative (n = 31) intestinal anti-TG2 antibodies. Globally 33/136 (24%) seronegative patients produced anti-TG2 autoantibodies at an intestinal level. Antibody libraries analysis confirmed the anti-TG2 antibodies mucosal production in all (n = 8) positive subjects. Lamina propria CD25+ cell count was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in patients with intestinal anti-TG2. Moreover, 13/32 (41%) of them showed high TCR-γδ+/CD3+ ratios. Intestinal anti-TG2 antibody production does not show absolute specificity for CD. It is seen more often in association with inflamed mucosa. Further investigations are necessary to prove the possible role of dietary gluten. View Full-Text
Keywords: celiac disease; potential celiac disease; intestinal anti-transglutaminase 2 antibodies; TCR-γδ+ intraepithelial lymphocytes celiac disease; potential celiac disease; intestinal anti-transglutaminase 2 antibodies; TCR-γδ+ intraepithelial lymphocytes
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Maglio, M.; Ziberna, F.; Aitoro, R.; Discepolo, V.; Lania, G.; Bassi, V.; Miele, E.; Not, T.; Troncone, R.; Auricchio, R. Intestinal Production of Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase 2 Antibodies in Patients with Diagnosis Other Than Celiac Disease. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1050.

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