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Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 9;

Nutrient Patterns Associated with Fasting Glucose and Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in a Black South African Population

Centre for Excellence in Nutrition, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, North West Province, South Africa
Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
Medical Research Council Research Unit for Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease, Faculty of Health Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 19 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) burden is increasing globally. However, evidence regarding nutrient patterns associated with the biomarkers of T2D is limited. This study set out to determine the nutrient patterns associated with fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin the biomarkers of T2D. Factor analysis was used to derive nutrient patterns of 2010 participants stratified by urban/rural status and gender. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients, computed from the quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ). Three nutrient patterns per stratum, which accounted for 73% of the variation of the selected nutrients, were identified. Multivariate linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, physical activity, education attained, alcohol intake, seasonality and total energy intake were computed. Starch, dietary fibre and B vitamins driven nutrient pattern was significantly associated with fasting glucose (β = −0.236 (−0.458; −0.014); p = 0.037) and glycated haemoglobin levels (β = −0.175 (−0.303; −0.047); p = 0.007) in rural women. Thiamine, zinc and plant protein driven nutrient pattern was associated with significant reductions in glycated haemoglobin and fasting glucose ((β = −0.288 (−0.543; −0.033); p = 0.027) and (β = −0.382 (−0.752; −0.012); p = 0.043), respectively) in rural men. Our results indicate that plant driven nutrient patterns are associated with low fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: plant based; fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin; T2D; dietary patterns plant based; fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin; T2D; dietary patterns

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Chikowore, T.; Pisa, P.T.; van Zyl, T.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Wentzel-Viljoen, E.; Conradie, K.R. Nutrient Patterns Associated with Fasting Glucose and Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in a Black South African Population. Nutrients 2017, 9, 9.

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