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Retinoic Acid and Its Role in Modulating Intestinal Innate Immunity

Immunology and Allergy Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm 171-76, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 68;
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 26 December 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
PDF [2040 KB, uploaded 13 January 2017]


Vitamin A (VA) is amongst the most well characterized food-derived nutrients with diverse immune modulatory roles. Deficiency in dietary VA has not only been associated with immune dysfunctions in the gut, but also with several systemic immune disorders. In particular, VA metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) has been shown to be crucial in inducing gut tropism in lymphocytes and modulating T helper differentiation. In addition to the widely recognized role in adaptive immunity, increasing evidence identifies atRA as an important modulator of innate immune cells, such as tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Here, we focus on the role of retinoic acid in differentiation, trafficking and the functions of innate immune cells in health and inflammation associated disorders. Lastly, we discuss the potential involvement of atRA during the plausible crosstalk between DCs and ILCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin A; retinoic acid; innate immunity; dendritic cells; innate lymphoid cells vitamin A; retinoic acid; innate immunity; dendritic cells; innate lymphoid cells

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Czarnewski, P.; Das, S.; Parigi, S.M.; Villablanca, E.J. Retinoic Acid and Its Role in Modulating Intestinal Innate Immunity. Nutrients 2017, 9, 68.

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