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Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4–13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study

Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0.236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 11072020, Lebanon
Nestle Waters, 12 boulevard Garibaldi, Issy-les-Moulineaux, Paris 92130, France
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(9), 554;
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 8 September 2016
PDF [1468 KB, uploaded 8 September 2016]


This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9–13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4–8 years old (92%–98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life. View Full-Text
Keywords: water intake; beverage consumption; water adequacy; hydration; children; Lebanon water intake; beverage consumption; water adequacy; hydration; children; Lebanon

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Jomaa, L.; Hwalla, N.; Constant, F.; Naja, F.; Nasreddine, L. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4–13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 554.

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