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Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study

Human Nutrition and Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Sciences, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY 12866, USA
Integrative Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
Florida State University, Institute of Sports Sciences & Medicine, Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Tallahassee, FL 32304, USA
Discipline of Biokinetics, Exercise, and Leisure Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 288;
Received: 6 April 2016 / Revised: 4 May 2016 / Accepted: 5 May 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance)
We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein-pacing; physical performance; cardiometabolic-risk; PRISE exercise training protein-pacing; physical performance; cardiometabolic-risk; PRISE exercise training
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arciero, P.J.; Edmonds, R.C.; Bunsawat, K.; Gentile, C.L.; Ketcham, C.; Darin, C.; Renna, M.; Zheng, Q.; Zhang, J.Z.; Ormsbee, M.J. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 288.

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