Impact of Genotype on EPA and DHA Status and Responsiveness to Increased Intakes
AbstractAt a population level, cardioprotective and cognitive actions of the fish oil (FO) derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been extensively demonstrated. In addition to dietary intake, which is limited for many individuals, EPA and DHA status is dependent on the efficiency of their biosynthesis from α-linolenic acid. Gender and common gene variants have been identified as influencing the rate-limiting desaturase and elongase enzymes. Response to a particular intake or status is also highly heterogeneous and likely influenced by genetic variants which impact on EPA and DHA metabolism and tissue partitioning, transcription factor activity, or physiological end-point regulation. Here, available literature relating genotype to tissue LC n-3 PUFA status and response to FO intervention is considered. It is concluded that the available evidence is relatively limited, with much of the variability unexplained, though APOE and FADS genotypes are emerging as being important. Although genotype × LC n-3 PUFA interactions have been described for a number of phenotypes, few have been confirmed in independent studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the genetic, physiological and behavioural modulators of EPA and DHA status and response to intervention is needed to allow refinement of current dietary LC n-3 PUFA recommendations and stratification of advice to “vulnerable” and responsive subgroups. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Minihane, A.M. Impact of Genotype on EPA and DHA Status and Responsiveness to Increased Intakes. Nutrients 2016, 8, 123.
Minihane AM. Impact of Genotype on EPA and DHA Status and Responsiveness to Increased Intakes. Nutrients. 2016; 8(3):123.Chicago/Turabian Style
Minihane, Anne M. 2016. "Impact of Genotype on EPA and DHA Status and Responsiveness to Increased Intakes." Nutrients 8, no. 3: 123.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.