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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
Division of Preventive Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
Department of Oncology and Pathology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
Program in Integrative Nutrition and Complex Diseases, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 779;
Received: 1 November 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), specifically) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017). During a mean 11.7 years (1993–2010), 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08). An interaction (p = 0.01) was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: butyrate; colorectal cancer; DHA; EPA; fat; fiber; omega-3; pectin butyrate; colorectal cancer; DHA; EPA; fat; fiber; omega-3; pectin
MDPI and ACS Style

Navarro, S.L.; Neuhouser, M.L.; Cheng, T.-Y.D.; Tinker, L.F.; Shikany, J.M.; Snetselaar, L.; Martinez, J.A.; Kato, I.; Beresford, S.A.A.; Chapkin, R.S.; Lampe, J.W. The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative. Nutrients 2016, 8, 779.

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