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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Protein Sources and Incidence of Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

Oncology Center, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510000, China
Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 730;
Received: 8 July 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
PDF [1287 KB, uploaded 17 November 2016]


Protein is important to the human body, and different sources of protein may have different effects on the risk of breast cancer. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between different dietary protein sources and breast cancer risk. PubMed and several databases were searched until December 2015. Relevant articles were retrieved according to specific searching criteria. Forty-six prospective studies were included. The summary relative risk (RR) for highest versus lowest intake was 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.14, I2 = 34.6%) for processed meat, 0.92 (95% CI 0.84–1.00, I2 = 0%) for soy food, 0.93 (95% CI 0.85–1.00, I2 = 40.1%) for skim milk, and 0.90 (95% CI 0.82–1.00, I2 = 0%) for yogurt. Similar conclusions were obtained in dose-response association for each serving increase: total red meat (RR: 1.07; 95% CI 1.01–1.14, I2 = 7.1%), fresh red meat (RR: 1.13; 95% CI 1.01–1.26, I2 = 56.4%), processed meat (RR: 1.09; 95% CI 1.02–1.17, I2 = 11.8%), soy food (RR: 0.91; 95% CI 0.84–1.00, I2 = 0%), and skim milk (RR: 0.96; 95% CI 0.92–1.00, I2 = 11.9%). There was a null association between poultry, fish, egg, nuts, total milk, and whole milk intake and breast cancer risk. Higher total red meat, fresh red meat, and processed meat intake may be risk factors for breast cancer, whereas higher soy food and skim milk intake may reduce the risk of breast cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; dietary protein sources; prospective studies; meta-analysis breast cancer; dietary protein sources; prospective studies; meta-analysis

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Wu, J.; Zeng, R.; Huang, J.; Li, X.; Zhang, J.; Ho, J.C.-M.; Zheng, Y. Dietary Protein Sources and Incidence of Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. Nutrients 2016, 8, 730.

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