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Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Related to Protein Signaling Involved in Glucose Homeostasis in a Tissue-Specific Manner

1
Clinical Exercise Science Research Program, Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living (ISEAL), Victoria University, Melbourne VIC 8001, Australia
2
Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, MHRP, 43-51 Kanooka Grove, Clayton VIC 3168, Australia
3
Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds VIC 3217, Australia
4
Diabetes and Vascular Medicine Unit, Monash Health, Locked Bag 29, Clayton VIC 3168, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100631
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 25 September 2016 / Accepted: 3 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
Vitamin D has been suggested to play a role in glucose metabolism. However, previous findings are contradictory and mechanistic pathways remain unclear. We examined the relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), insulin sensitivity, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventeen healthy adults (Body mass index: 26 ± 4; Age: 30 ± 12 years) underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and resting skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies. In this cohort, the plasma 25(OH)D concentration was not associated with insulin sensitivity (r = 0.19, p = 0.56). However, higher plasma 25(OH)D concentrations correlated with lower phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) αSer21 and βSer9 in skeletal muscle (r = −0.66, p = 0.015 and r = −0.53, p = 0.06, respectively) and higher GSK-3 αSer21 and βSer9 phosphorylation in adipose tissue (r = 0.82, p < 0.01 and r = 0.62, p = 0.042, respectively). Furthermore, higher plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with greater phosphorylation of both protein kinase-B (AktSer473) (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1Ser312) (r = 0.71, p = 0.01) in adipose tissue. No associations were found between plasma 25(OH)D concentration and IRS-1Tyr612 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The divergent findings between muscle and adipose tissue with regard to the association between 25(OH)D and insulin signaling proteins may suggest a tissue-specific interaction with varying effects on glucose homeostasis. Further research is required to elucidate the physiological relevance of 25(OH)D in each tissue. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; glucose homeostasis; insulin resistance; insulin signaling; vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D diabetes; glucose homeostasis; insulin resistance; insulin signaling; vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D
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MDPI and ACS Style

Parker, L.; Levinger, I.; Mousa, A.; Howlett, K.; De Courten, B. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Related to Protein Signaling Involved in Glucose Homeostasis in a Tissue-Specific Manner. Nutrients 2016, 8, 631. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100631

AMA Style

Parker L, Levinger I, Mousa A, Howlett K, De Courten B. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Related to Protein Signaling Involved in Glucose Homeostasis in a Tissue-Specific Manner. Nutrients. 2016; 8(10):631. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100631

Chicago/Turabian Style

Parker, Lewan; Levinger, Itamar; Mousa, Aya; Howlett, Kirsten; De Courten, Barbora. 2016. "Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Related to Protein Signaling Involved in Glucose Homeostasis in a Tissue-Specific Manner" Nutrients 8, no. 10: 631. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100631

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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