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Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys

Hydration and Health Department, Danone Research, Palaiseau 91767, France
CREDOC (Centre de Recherche pour l’Etude et l’Observation des Conditions de Vie), Paris 75013, France
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna 1090, Austria
British Dietetic Association, Birmingham B3 3HT, UK
School of Life and Medical Services, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9EU, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 630;
Received: 30 July 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
PDF [1623 KB, uploaded 14 October 2016]


Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%–30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009–2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%–90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public. View Full-Text
Keywords: total water intake; fluid intake; food moisture; adequate intake total water intake; fluid intake; food moisture; adequate intake

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Guelinckx, I.; Tavoularis, G.; König, J.; Morin, C.; Gharbi, H.; Gandy, J. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys. Nutrients 2016, 8, 630.

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