Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35–74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries
AbstractBlood micronutrient status may change with age. We analyzed plasma carotenoids, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol and their associations with age, demographic characteristics, and dietary habits (assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study of 2118 women and men (age-stratified from 35 to 74 years) of the general population from six European countries. Higher age was associated with lower lycopene and α-/β-carotene and higher β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Significant correlations with age were observed for lycopene (r = −0.248), α-tocopherol (r = 0.208), α-carotene (r = −0.112), and β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.125; all p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with lycopene (−6.5% per five-year age increase) and this association remained in the multiple regression model with the significant predictors (covariables) being country, season, cholesterol, gender, smoking status, body mass index (BMI (kg/m2)), and dietary habits. The positive association of α-tocopherol with age remained when all covariates including cholesterol and use of vitamin supplements were included (1.7% vs. 2.4% per five-year age increase). The association of higher β-cryptoxanthin with higher age was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for fruit consumption, whereas the inverse association of α-carotene with age remained in the fully adjusted multivariable model (−4.8% vs. −3.8% per five-year age increase). We conclude from our study that age is an independent predictor of plasma lycopene, α-tocopherol, and α-carotene. View Full-Text
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Stuetz, W.; Weber, D.; Dollé, M.E.T.; Jansen, E.; Grubeck-Loebenstein, B.; Fiegl, S.; Toussaint, O.; Bernhardt, J.; Gonos, E.S.; Franceschi, C.; Sikora, E.; Moreno-Villanueva, M.; Breusing, N.; Grune, T.; Bürkle, A. Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35–74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries. Nutrients 2016, 8, 614.
Stuetz W, Weber D, Dollé MET, Jansen E, Grubeck-Loebenstein B, Fiegl S, Toussaint O, Bernhardt J, Gonos ES, Franceschi C, Sikora E, Moreno-Villanueva M, Breusing N, Grune T, Bürkle A. Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35–74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries. Nutrients. 2016; 8(10):614.Chicago/Turabian Style
Stuetz, Wolfgang; Weber, Daniela; Dollé, Martijn E.T.; Jansen, Eugène; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Fiegl, Simone; Toussaint, Olivier; Bernhardt, Juergen; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Franceschi, Claudio; Sikora, Ewa; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Bürkle, Alexander. 2016. "Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35–74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries." Nutrients 8, no. 10: 614.
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