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Regulation of Intestinal Glucose Absorption by Ion Channels and Transporters

by Lihong Chen 1, Biguang Tuo 1,* and Hui Dong 1,2,*
1
Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital, Zunyi Medical College, and Digestive Disease Institute of Guizhou Province, Zunyi 563003, China
2
Department of Gastroenterology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010043
Received: 16 November 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 14 January 2016
The absorption of glucose is electrogenic in the small intestinal epithelium. The major route for the transport of dietary glucose from intestinal lumen into enterocytes is the Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1), although glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) may also play a role. The membrane potential of small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) is important to regulate the activity of SGLT1. The maintenance of membrane potential mainly depends on the activities of cation channels and transporters. While the importance of SGLT1 in glucose absorption has been systemically studied in detail, little is currently known about the regulation of SGLT1 activity by cation channels and transporters. A growing line of evidence suggests that cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) can regulate the absorption of glucose by adjusting GLUT2 and SGLT1. Moreover, the absorption of glucose and homeostasis of Ca2+ in IEC are regulated by cation channels and transporters, such as Ca2+ channels, K+ channels, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers, and Na+/H+ exchangers. In this review, we consider the involvement of these cation channels and transporters in the regulation of glucose uptake in the small intestine. Modulation of them may be a potential strategy for the management of obesity and diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucose uptake; Na+/glucose cotransporter; Ca2+ channels; K+ channels; Na+/Ca2+ exchanger; Na+/H+ exchanger; glucose transporter type 2 glucose uptake; Na+/glucose cotransporter; Ca2+ channels; K+ channels; Na+/Ca2+ exchanger; Na+/H+ exchanger; glucose transporter type 2
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Chen, L.; Tuo, B.; Dong, H. Regulation of Intestinal Glucose Absorption by Ion Channels and Transporters. Nutrients 2016, 8, 43.

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