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The Role of Gluten in Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes

Center for Celiac Research, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Graduate Program in Life Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7143-7162;
Received: 26 June 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten Related Disorders: People Shall not Live on Bread Alone)
Celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) are autoimmune conditions in which dietary gluten has been proven or suggested to play a pathogenic role. In CD; gluten is established as the instigator of autoimmunity; the autoimmune process is halted by removing gluten from the diet; which allows for resolution of celiac autoimmune enteropathy and subsequent normalization of serological markers of the disease. However; an analogous causative agent has not yet been identified for T1D. Nevertheless; the role of dietary gluten in development of T1D and the potentially beneficial effect of removing gluten from the diet of patients with T1D are still debated. In this review; we discuss the comorbid occurrence of CD and T1D and explore current evidences for the specific role of gluten in both conditions; specifically focusing on current evidence on the effect of gluten on the immune system and the gut microbiota. View Full-Text
Keywords: celiac disease; type 1 diabetes; gluten celiac disease; type 1 diabetes; gluten
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MDPI and ACS Style

Serena, G.; Camhi, S.; Sturgeon, C.; Yan, S.; Fasano, A. The Role of Gluten in Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes. Nutrients 2015, 7, 7143-7162.

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