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Open AccessArticle

Development of a Food Group-Based Diet Score and Its Association with Bone Mineral Density in the Elderly: The Rotterdam Study

1
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, P.O. box 2040, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, P.O. box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Global Public Health, Leiden University College The Hague, P.O. box 13228, 2501 EE, The Hague, The Netherlands
4
Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. box 8129, 6700 EV, Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6974-6990; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085317
Received: 9 June 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health)
No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b) to examine the association of the BMD-Diet Score and the Healthy Diet Indicator, a score based on guidelines of the World Health Organization, with BMD in Dutch elderly participating in a prospective cohort study, the Rotterdam Study (n = 5144). Baseline dietary intake, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, was categorized into food groups. Food groups that were consistently associated with BMD in the literature were included in the BMD-Diet Score. BMD was measured repeatedly and was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD-Diet Score considered intake of vegetables, fruits, fish, whole grains, legumes/beans and dairy products as “high-BMD” components and meat and confectionary as “low-BMD” components. After adjustment, the BMD-Diet Score was positively associated with BMD (β (95% confidence interval) = 0.009 (0.005, 0.012) g/cm2 per standard deviation). This effect size was approximately three times as large as has been observed for the Healthy Diet Indicator. The food groups included in our BMD-Diet Score could be considered in the development of future dietary guidelines for healthy ageing. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary patterns; bone mineral density; BMD-Diet score; healthy diet indicator dietary patterns; bone mineral density; BMD-Diet score; healthy diet indicator
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De Jonge, E.A.; Jong, J.C.-D.; De Groot, L.C.; Voortman, T.; Schoufour, J.D.; Zillikens, M.C.; Hofman, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Franco, O.H.; Rivadeneira, F. Development of a Food Group-Based Diet Score and Its Association with Bone Mineral Density in the Elderly: The Rotterdam Study. Nutrients 2015, 7, 6974-6990.

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