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Open AccessArticle

Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population

1
Regional Program for PhD in Biotechnology, FCQB, University of Sinaloa, Culiacán, Sinaloa 80019, Mexico
2
Nutrition Sciences Academic Unit, University of Sinaloa, Culiacán, Sinaloa 80019, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 6000-6015; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7075267
Received: 31 May 2015 / Revised: 31 May 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 21 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten Related Disorders: People Shall not Live on Bread Alone)
The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI): 11.9% (9.9–13.5) and 7.8 (6.4–9.4) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7–4.8), wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38–1.37); celiac disease 0.08% (0.01–0.45), and NCGS 0.97% (0.55–1.68). Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49–1.5), and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p < 0.05). Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice. View Full-Text
Keywords: prevalence; adverse reactions; gluten-free diet; gluten-related disorders prevalence; adverse reactions; gluten-free diet; gluten-related disorders
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Ontiveros, N.; López-Gallardo, J.A.; Vergara-Jiménez, M.J.; Cabrera-Chávez, F. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population. Nutrients 2015, 7, 6000-6015.

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