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Open AccessArticle

Cytotoxic Activity of Piper cubeba Extract in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
2
The Cancer Molecular Biology Excellence Research Laboratory, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2707-2718; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7042707
Received: 23 January 2015 / Revised: 20 March 2015 / Accepted: 6 April 2015 / Published: 10 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Human Health)
This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a crude extract of Piper cubeba against normal and breast cancer cell lines. To prepare the extract, P. cubeba seeds were ground, soaked in methanol and dichloromethane and isolated by column chromatography. Fractions were tested for cytotoxicity effects on normal fibroblast (L929), normal breast (MCF-12A) and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231). The most effective fraction was selected for DNA fragmentation assay to detect apoptotic activity. The results showed that the methanolic crude extract had a higher cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 than a dichloromethane crude extract. Then, the methanolic crude extract was separated into six fractions, designated A to F. Fraction C was highly active against breast cancer cell lines with an IC50 value less than 4 μg/mL. Therefore, Fraction C was further separated into seven fractions, CA to CG. The 1H-NMR profile showed that Fraction CE was long chain hydrocarbons. Moreover, Fraction CE demonstrated the highest activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 2.69 ± 0.09 μg/mL and lower cytotoxicity against normal fibroblast L929 cells with an IC50 value of 4.17 ± 0.77 μg/mL. Finally, DNA fragmentation with a ladder pattern characteristic of apoptosis was observed in MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231 and L929 cells, but not in MCF-12A cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: Piper cubeba; cytotoxicity; breast cancer; DNA fragmentation; apoptosis Piper cubeba; cytotoxicity; breast cancer; DNA fragmentation; apoptosis
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Graidist, P.; Martla, M.; Sukpondma, Y. Cytotoxic Activity of Piper cubeba Extract in Breast Cancer Cell Lines. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2707-2718.

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