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Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2274-2296;

Duodenal Cytochrome b (DCYTB) in Iron Metabolism: An Update on Function and Regulation

Molecular Pharmacology and Pathology Program, Department of Pathology and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2014 / Revised: 3 March 2015 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 31 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Deficiency: Development, Implications and Treatment)
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Iron and ascorbate are vital cellular constituents in mammalian systems. The bulk-requirement for iron is during erythropoiesis leading to the generation of hemoglobin-containing erythrocytes. Additionally; both iron and ascorbate are required as co-factors in numerous metabolic reactions. Iron homeostasis is controlled at the level of uptake; rather than excretion. Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that in addition to the known ability of dietary ascorbate to enhance non-heme iron absorption in the gut; ascorbate regulates iron homeostasis. The involvement of ascorbate in dietary iron absorption extends beyond the direct chemical reduction of non-heme iron by dietary ascorbate. Among other activities; intra-enterocyte ascorbate appears to be involved in the provision of electrons to a family of trans-membrane redox enzymes; namely those of the cytochrome b561 class. These hemoproteins oxidize a pool of ascorbate on one side of the membrane in order to reduce an electron acceptor (e.g., non-heme iron) on the opposite side of the membrane. One member of this family; duodenal cytochrome b (DCYTB); may play an important role in ascorbate-dependent reduction of non-heme iron in the gut prior to uptake by ferrous-iron transporters. This review discusses the emerging relationship between cellular iron homeostasis; the emergent “IRP1-HIF2α axis”; DCYTB and ascorbate in relation to iron metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: DCYTB; CYBRD1; vitamin C; cytochrome b561; iron homeostasis; anemia; mouse model; HIF2α; IRP1 DCYTB; CYBRD1; vitamin C; cytochrome b561; iron homeostasis; anemia; mouse model; HIF2α; IRP1

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Lane, D.J.R.; Bae, D.-H.; Merlot, A.M.; Sahni, S.; Richardson, D.R. Duodenal Cytochrome b (DCYTB) in Iron Metabolism: An Update on Function and Regulation. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2274-2296.

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