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Open AccessArticle

High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Infertile Women Referring for Assisted Reproduction

Division of Genetics and Cell Biology, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano 20132, Italy
Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano 20132, Italy
Division of Experimental Oncology, URI-Urological Research Institute, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milano 20132, Italy
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Neonatology, Fondazione Cà Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano 20122, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9972-9984;
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Premenopausal Nutrition and Fertility)
A comprehensive analysis of the vitamin D status of infertile women is the first step in understanding hypovitaminosis impact on reproductive potential. We sought to determine vitamin D profiles of women attending an infertility center and to investigate non-dietary determinants of vitamin D status in this population. In this cross-sectional analysis, a cohort of 1072 women (mean age ± standard deviation 36.3 ± 4.4 years) attending an academic infertility center was used to examine serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in relation to demographic characteristics, seasons and general health risk factors. Both unadjusted and adjusted levels of serum 25(OH)D were examined. Median 25(OH)D concentration was below 30 ng/mL for 89% of the entire year. Over the whole year, 6.5% of patients had 25(OH)D levels ≤10 ng/mL, 40.1% ≤20 ng/mL, and 77.4% ≤30 ng/mL. Global solar radiation was weakly correlated with 25(OH)D levels. At multivariable analysis, 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with BMI; conversely, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with height and endometriosis history. Serum 25(OH)D levels are highly deficient in women seeking medical help for couple’s infertility. Levels are significantly associated with body composition, seasonal modifications and causes of infertility. Importantly, this deficiency status may last during pregnancy with more severe consequences. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; assisted reproduction; infertility; 25(OH)D; endometriosis vitamin D; assisted reproduction; infertility; 25(OH)D; endometriosis
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Pagliardini, L.; Vigano’, P.; Molgora, M.; Persico, P.; Salonia, A.; Vailati, S.H.; Paffoni, A.; Somigliana, E.; Papaleo, E.; Candiani, M. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Infertile Women Referring for Assisted Reproduction. Nutrients 2015, 7, 9972-9984.

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