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Nutrients 2015, 7(11), 9590-9601;

Inconsistency of Association between Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function in Adults and Elderly in a Cross-Sectional Study (ELSA-Brasil)

Research Group on Epidemiology on Chronic and Occupational Diseases (GERMINAL), School of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30130-100, Brazil
Center for Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Hospital Universitário, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil
Postgraduate Studies Program in Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul 96203-900, Brazil
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam 3000 CA, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2015 / Revised: 28 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Consumption and Human Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [215 KB, uploaded 19 November 2015]


Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and the effect on cognition appears to be task specific and vary by age. Method: In cohort of 14,563 public service workers (35–74 years old) we assessed coffee consumption habits and examined cognitive function using standardized neuropsychological test battery. By linear regression and generalize linear regression with logarithmic link and gamma distribution we investigated the relation of coffee consumption (never/almost never, ≤1 cup/day, 2–3 cups/day, ≥3 cups/day) in the last 12 months to performance on specific domains of cognition for adults and elderly separately. Results: Among elderly, after adjustments, coffee consumption was associated only with an increase in the mean words remembered on learning, recall, and word recognition tests when comparing the 2–3 cups/day to never/almost never category (arithmetic mean ratio (AMR): 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.07), and to an increase in the mean words pronounced in semantic verbal fluency test when comparing the ≥3 cups/day to never/almost never category (difference of the mean: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.16 to 2.29). However, coffee consumption was not associated with any cognitive function tests in adults and also was not associated with the phonemic verbal fluency test and trail-making test B in elderly. Conclusions: Results suggest that coffee consumption might be slightly beneficial to memory in elderly but lacks a dose response relationship. Longitudinal analyses are needed to investigate possible, even if subtle, positive effects of coffee drinking on specific cognitive domains in elderly. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee consumption; diet bioactive compounds; cognitive function tasks coffee consumption; diet bioactive compounds; cognitive function tasks
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Araújo, L.F.; Giatti, L.; Reis, R.C.P.; Goulart, A.C.; Schmidt, M.I.; Duncan, B.B.; Ikram, M.A.; Barreto, S.M. Inconsistency of Association between Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function in Adults and Elderly in a Cross-Sectional Study (ELSA-Brasil). Nutrients 2015, 7, 9590-9601.

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