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Open AccessArticle

A Multi-Center Assessment of Nutrient Levels and Foods Provided by Hospital Patient Menus

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 150 College Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3E2, Canada
Department of Food and Nutrition Services, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1X5, Canada
Department of Food and Nutrition Services, Hamilton Health Sciences Centre, Chedoke Site, Sanatorium Road, Hamilton, ON L9C 1C4, Canada
Department of Food and Nutrition Services, St. Michael’s Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, Canada
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St. North Science Building, Rm 3016, Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2015, 7(11), 9256-9264;
Received: 25 August 2015 / Revised: 27 October 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
Diets of high nutritional quality can aid in the prevention and management of malnutrition in hospitalized patients. This study evaluated the nutritional quality of hospital patient menus. At three large acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, 84 standard menus were evaluated, which included regular and carbohydrate-controlled diets and 3000 mg and 2000 mg sodium diets. Mean levels of calories, macronutrients and vitamins and minerals provided were calculated. Comparisons were made with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) recommendations. Calorie levels ranged from 1281 to 3007 kcal, with 45% of menus below 1600 kcal. Protein ranged from 49 to 159 g (0.9–1.1 g/kg/day). Energy and protein levels were highest in carbohydrate-controlled menus. All regular and carbohydrate-controlled menus provided macronutrients within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. The proportion of regular diet menus meeting the DRIs: 0% for fiber; 7% for calcium; 57% for vitamin C; and 100% for iron. Compared to CFG recommended servings, 35% met vegetables and fruit and milk and alternatives, 11% met grain products and 8% met meat and alternatives. These data support the need for frequent monitoring and evaluation of menus, food procurement and menu planning policies and for sufficient resources to ensure menu quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: malnutrition; food service; energy; protein; hospital menus malnutrition; food service; energy; protein; hospital menus
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Trang, S.; Fraser, J.; Wilkinson, L.; Steckham, K.; Oliphant, H.; Fletcher, H.; Tzianetas, R.; Arcand, J. A Multi-Center Assessment of Nutrient Levels and Foods Provided by Hospital Patient Menus. Nutrients 2015, 7, 9256-9264.

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