Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the second most frequent autoimmune disease in childhood. The long-term micro- and macro-vascular complications of diabetes are associated with the leading causes of disability and even mortality in young adults. Understanding the T1D etiology will allow the design of preventive strategies to avoid or delay the T1D onset and to help to maintain control after developing. T1D development involves genetic and environmental factors, such as birth delivery mode, use of antibiotics, and diet. Gut microbiota could be the link between environmental factors, the development of autoimmunity, and T1D. In this review, we will focus on the dietary factor and its relationship with the gut microbiota in the complex process involved in autoimmunity and T1D. The molecular mechanisms involved will also be addressed, and finally, evidence-based strategies for potential primary and secondary prevention of T1D will be discussed.
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