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Open AccessArticle

Association of Dietary Proportions of Macronutrients with Visceral Adiposity Index: Non-Substitution and Iso-Energetic Substitution Models in a Prospective Study

1
Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran
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Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4741, Iran
3
Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8859-8870; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7105436
Received: 4 August 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 13 October 2015 / Published: 26 October 2015
We aimed to investigate associations between dietary macronutrient proportions and prospective visceral adiposity index changes (ΔVAI). The study included 1254 adults (18–74 years), from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), who were followed for three years. Dietary intakes were assessed twice using food frequency questionnaires. Associations of dietary macronutrient with ΔVAI and risk of visceral adiposity dysfunction (VAD) after three years were investigated. The percentage of energy intake from protein in the total population, and from fat in women, were associated with higher increases in VAI. A 5% higher energy intake from protein substituted for carbohydrate, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was associated with higher ΔVAI. Higher energy intake from animal protein substituted for PUFAs was positively associated with ΔVAI. Substituting protein and PUFAs with MUFAs were related to higher ΔVAI. The associations were similar in men and women, but reached significance mostly among women. Risk of VAD was increased when 1% of energy from protein was replaced with MUFAs. Substituting protein for carbohydrate and fat, and fat for carbohydrate, resulted in increased risk of VAD in women. Higher dietary proportions of protein and animal-derived MUFA may be positively associated with ΔVAI and risk of VAD. View Full-Text
Keywords: macronutrients; visceral adiposity index; visceral adiposity dysfunction; substitution model macronutrients; visceral adiposity index; visceral adiposity dysfunction; substitution model
MDPI and ACS Style

Moslehi, N.; Ehsani, B.; Mirmiran, P.; Hojjat, P.; Azizi, F. Association of Dietary Proportions of Macronutrients with Visceral Adiposity Index: Non-Substitution and Iso-Energetic Substitution Models in a Prospective Study. Nutrients 2015, 7, 8859-8870.

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