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Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5224-5264;

Nitrate Ingestion: A Review of the Health and Physical Performance Effects

Cardiorespiratory/Metabolic Laboratory, Department of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Memphis, 106 Roane Fieldhouse, Memphis, TN 38152, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
PDF [343 KB, uploaded 18 November 2014]


This paper provides an overview of the current literature and scientific evidence surrounding inorganic nitrate (NO3) supplementation and its potential for improving human health and physical performance. As indicative of the ever-expanding organic and natural food consumer market, athletes and health enthusiasts alike are constantly searching for ingredient-specific “super foods” and dietary supplements capable of eliciting health and performance benefits. Evidence suggests that NO3 is the viable active component within beetroot juice (BRJ) and other vegetables, responsible for health-promoting and ergogenic effects. Indeed, multiple studies support NO3 supplementation as an effective method to improve exercise performance. NO3 supplementation (either as BRJ or sodium nitrate [NaNO3]) has also demonstrated modest benefits pertaining to cardiovascular health, such as reducing blood pressure (BP), enhancing blood flow, and elevating the driving pressure of O2 in the microcirculation to areas of hypoxia or exercising tissue. These findings are important to cardiovascular medicine/exercise physiology and suggest a possible role for NO3 supplementation: (1) as a low-cost prevention and treatment intervention for patients suffering from blood flow disorders; and (2) an effective, natural ergogenic aid for athletes. Benefits have been noted following a single bolus, as well as daily supplementation of NO3. While results are promising, additional research is needed to determine the impact of NO3 supplementation on anaerobic exercise performance, to identify principle relationships between isolated nitrate and other ingredients found in nitrate-rich vegetables (e.g., vitamin C, polyphenols, fatty acids, thiocyanate), to explore the specific dose-response relationships needed to elicit health and ergogenic benefits, to prolong the supplementation period beyond a relatively short period (i.e., >15 days), to determine if more robust effects can be observed with longer-term treatment, and to fully examine the safety of chronic NO3 supplementation, as this continues to be a concern of some. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrate; nitric oxide; exercise; blood flow; beetroot; blood pressure nitrate; nitric oxide; exercise; blood flow; beetroot; blood pressure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Clements, W.T.; Lee, S.-R.; Bloomer, R.J. Nitrate Ingestion: A Review of the Health and Physical Performance Effects. Nutrients 2014, 6, 5224-5264.

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