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Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4434-4451;

Dietary and Health Profiles of Spanish Women in Preconception, Pregnancy and Lactation

Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Physiology, Center for Nutritional Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008, Spain
CIBERobn Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid 28029, Spain
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2014 / Revised: 19 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pregnancy)
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The nutritional status and lifestyle of women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation determine maternal, fetal and child health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate dietary patterns and lifestyles according the perinatal physiological status in a large sample of Spanish women. Community pharmacists that were previously trained to collect the data recruited 13,845 women. General information, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, unhealthy habits and dietary data were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Mean values and percentages were used as descriptive statistics. The t-test, ANOVA or chi-squared test were used to compare groups. A score that included dietary and behavioral characteristics was generated to compare lifestyles in the three physiological situations. The analysis revealed that diet quality should be improved in the three stages, but in a different manner. While women seeking a pregnancy only met dairy recommendations, those who were pregnant only fulfilled fresh fruits servings and lactating women only covered protein group requirements. In all cases, the consumption allowances of sausages, buns and pastries were exceeded. Food patterns and unhealthy behaviors of Spanish women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation should be improved, particularly in preconception. This information might be useful in order to implement educational programs for each population group. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; health; lifestyles; score; preconception; pregnancy; lactation diet; health; lifestyles; score; preconception; pregnancy; lactation

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Cuervo, M.; Sayon-Orea, C.; Santiago, S.; Martínez, J.A. Dietary and Health Profiles of Spanish Women in Preconception, Pregnancy and Lactation. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4434-4451.

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