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Dietary Fructose Feeding Increases Adipose Methylglyoxal Accumulation in Rats in Association with Low Expression and Activity of Glyoxalase-2

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Department of Food and Nutrition, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773, Korea
Human Nutrition Program, Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2013, 5(8), 3311-3328;
Received: 9 June 2013 / Revised: 5 July 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 21 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology)
PDF [640 KB, uploaded 21 August 2013]


Methylglyoxal is a precursor to advanced glycation endproducts that may contribute to diabetes and its cardiovascular-related complications. Methylglyoxal is successively catabolized to d-lactate by glyoxalase-1 and glyoxalase-2. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary fructose and green tea extract (GTE) differentially regulate methylglyoxal accumulation in liver and adipose, mediated by tissue-specific differences in the glyoxalase system. We fed six week old male Sprague-Dawley rats a low-fructose diet (10% w/w) or a high-fructose diet (60% w/w) containing no GTE or GTE at 0.5% or 1.0% for nine weeks. Fructose-fed rats had higher (P < 0.05) adipose methylglyoxal, but GTE had no effect. Plasma and hepatic methylglyoxal were unaffected by fructose and GTE. Fructose and GTE also had no effect on the expression or activity of glyoxalase-1 and glyoxalase-2 at liver or adipose. Regardless of diet, adipose glyoxalase-2 activity was 10.8-times lower (P < 0.05) than adipose glyoxalase-1 activity and 5.9-times lower than liver glyoxalase-2 activity. Adipose glyoxalase-2 activity was also inversely related to adipose methylglyoxal (r = −0.61; P < 0.05). These findings suggest that fructose-mediated adipose methylglyoxal accumulation is independent of GTE supplementation and that its preferential accumulation in adipose compared to liver is due to low constitutive expression of glyoxalase-2. View Full-Text
Keywords: fructose; glyoxalase I; glyoxalase II; pyruvaldehyde; rats; Sprague-Dawley fructose; glyoxalase I; glyoxalase II; pyruvaldehyde; rats; Sprague-Dawley

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Masterjohn, C.; Park, Y.; Lee, J.; Noh, S.K.; Koo, S.I.; Bruno, R.S. Dietary Fructose Feeding Increases Adipose Methylglyoxal Accumulation in Rats in Association with Low Expression and Activity of Glyoxalase-2. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3311-3328.

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