Next Article in Journal
Lectin Staining Shows no Evidence of Involvement of Glycocalyx/Mucous Layer Carbohydrate Structures in Development of Celiac Disease
Next Article in Special Issue
Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Imbalance Modifies NK Cytotoxicity, Lymphocytes B and Lymphoprolipheration in Aged Rats
Previous Article in Journal
Application of Dairy Proteins as Technological and Nutritional Improvers of Calcium-Supplemented Gluten-Free Bread
Previous Article in Special Issue
Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Relation to Functional Disabilities

Cobalamin Deficiency: Clinical Picture and Radiological Findings

Department of Neurosciences, Neurological, Psychiatric, Sensorial, Reconstructive and Rehabilitative Sciences, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 5, Padova 35128, Italy
IRCCS San Camillo, Venezia 30011, Italy
Neuroradiology, University of Salerno, Baronissi 84081, Italy
Department of Medicine, Hematology Unit, University of Padova, Padova 35128, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2013, 5(11), 4521-4539;
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 15 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin B12 and Human Health)
Vitamin B12 deficiency causes a wide range of hematological, gastrointestinal, psychiatric and neurological disorders. Hematological presentation of cobalamin deficiency ranges from the incidental increase of mean corpuscular volume and neutrophil hypersegmentation to symptoms due to severe anemia, such as angor, dyspnea on exertion, fatigue or symptoms related to congestive heart failure, such as ankle edema, orthopnea and nocturia. Neuropsychiatric symptoms may precede hematologic signs and are represented by myelopathy, neuropathy, dementia and, less often, optic nerve atrophy. The spinal cord manifestation, subacute combined degeneration (SCD), is characterized by symmetric dysesthesia, disturbance of position sense and spastic paraparesis or tetraparesis. The most consistent MRI finding is a symmetrical abnormally increased T2 signal intensity confined to posterior or posterior and lateral columns in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Isolated peripheral neuropathy is less frequent, but likely overlooked. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been correlated negatively with cognitive functioning in healthy elderly subjects. Symptoms include slow mentation, memory impairment, attention deficits and dementia. Optic neuropathy occurs occasionally in adult patient. It is characterized by symmetric, painless and progressive visual loss. Parenteral replacement therapy should be started soon after the vitamin deficiency has been established. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin B12; cobalamin; neuropathy; subacute combined degeneration; neuroimaging vitamin B12; cobalamin; neuropathy; subacute combined degeneration; neuroimaging
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Briani, C.; Dalla Torre, C.; Citton, V.; Manara, R.; Pompanin, S.; Binotto, G.; Adami, F. Cobalamin Deficiency: Clinical Picture and Radiological Findings. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4521-4539.

AMA Style

Briani C, Dalla Torre C, Citton V, Manara R, Pompanin S, Binotto G, Adami F. Cobalamin Deficiency: Clinical Picture and Radiological Findings. Nutrients. 2013; 5(11):4521-4539.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Briani, Chiara, Chiara Dalla Torre, Valentina Citton, Renzo Manara, Sara Pompanin, Gianni Binotto, and Fausto Adami. 2013. "Cobalamin Deficiency: Clinical Picture and Radiological Findings" Nutrients 5, no. 11: 4521-4539.

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop