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Dietary Factors and Type 2 Diabetes in the Middle East: What Is the Evidence for an Association?––A Systematic Review

Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, Clinical Sciences Research Institute, University of Warwick, Coventry CV2 2DX, UK
Prince Mutaib Chair for Osteoporosis, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box, 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2013, 5(10), 3871-3897;
Received: 28 April 2013 / Revised: 8 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 26 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diabetes)
This review aims to search and summarise the available evidence on the association between dietary factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Middle Eastern populations, where diabetes prevalence is among the highest in the world. Electronic databases were searched; authors, libraries, and research centres in the Middle East were contacted for further studies and unpublished literature. Included studies assessed potential dietary factors for T2DM in Middle Eastern adults. Two reviewers assessed studies independently. Extensive searching yielded 17 studies which met the inclusion criteria for this review. The findings showed that whole-grain intake reduces the risk of T2DM, and potato consumption was positively correlated with T2DM. Vegetables and vegetable oil may play a protective role against T2DM. Dietary patterns that are associated with diabetes were identified, such as Fast Food and Refined Grains patterns. Two studies demonstrated that lifestyle interventions decreased the risk of T2DM. In summary, the identified studies support an association between some dietary factors and T2DM; however, many of the included studies were of poor methodological quality so the findings should be interpreted with caution. The review draws attention to major gaps in current evidence and the need for well-designed studies in this area. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; type 2 diabetes; Middle East diet; type 2 diabetes; Middle East
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Al-Khudairy, L.; Stranges, S.; Kumar, S.; Al-Daghri, N.; Rees, K. Dietary Factors and Type 2 Diabetes in the Middle East: What Is the Evidence for an Association?––A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3871-3897.

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