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Open AccessArticle

Continuous Feedings of Fortified Human Milk Lead to Nutrient Losses of Fat, Calcium and Phosphorous

Northwest Newborn Specialists 501 N, Graham Suite 265, Portland, OR 97227 USA
United States Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service, Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, 1100 Bates St. Houston, Texas 77030 USA
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 USA
Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030 USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 230-240;
Received: 4 February 2010 / Accepted: 25 February 2010 / Published: 26 February 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
PDF [230 KB, uploaded 26 February 2010]


Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube (gavage) feeding of fortified human milk. Our objective was to compare the losses of key macronutrients and minerals based on method of fortification and gavage feeding method. We used clinically available gavage feeding systems and measured pre- and post-feeding (end-point) nutrient content of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), protein, and fat. Comparisons were made between continuous, gravity bolus, and 30-minute infusion pump feeding systems, as well as human milk fortified with donor human milk-based and bovine milk-based human milk fortifier using an in vitro model. Feeding method was significantly associated with fat and Ca losses, with increased losses in continuous feeds. Fat losses in continuous feeds were substantial, with 40 ± 3 % of initial fat lost during the feeding process. After correction for feeding method, human milk fortified with donor milk-based fortifier was associated with significantly less loss of Ca (8 ± 4% vs. 28 ± 4%, p< 0.001), Phos (3 ± 4% vs. 24 ± 4%, p < 0.001), and fat (17 ± 2% vs. 25 ± 2%, p = 0.001) than human milk fortified with a bovine milk-based fortifier (Mean ± SEM). View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium; phosphorous; neonates; enteral nutrition; lipids; protein calcium; phosphorous; neonates; enteral nutrition; lipids; protein

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Rogers, S.P.; Hicks, P.D.; Hamzo, M.; Veit, L.E.; Abrams, S.A. Continuous Feedings of Fortified Human Milk Lead to Nutrient Losses of Fat, Calcium and Phosphorous. Nutrients 2010, 2, 230-240.

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