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Article

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Measured Ionized Magnesium Is Inversely Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study

1
Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings (Labcorp), Morrisville, NC 27560, USA
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Mario Barbagallo
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091792
Received: 2 April 2022 / Revised: 21 April 2022 / Accepted: 22 April 2022 / Published: 25 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
The aims were to optimize a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based assay for quantifying ionized or free magnesium and investigate its association with type 2 diabetes (T2D). A high-throughput, ionized magnesium assay was optimized and evaluated. Plasma magnesium was quantified, and associations with T2D were ascertained in Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) participants. Coefficients of variation for the ionized magnesium assay ranged from 0.7–1.5% for intra-assay and 4.2–4.7% for inter-assay precision. In IRAS (n = 1342), ionized magnesium was significantly lower in subjects with prediabetes and T2D than in normoglycemic subjects, and lower in participants with T2D than those with prediabetes (p < 0.0001). Cross-sectional regression analyses revealed that magnesium was associated with T2D at baseline in models adjusted for multiple clinical risk factors (p = 0.032). This association appeared to be modified by sex, in such a way that the associations were present in women (OR = 0.54 (95% CI 0.37–0.79), p = 0.0015) and not in men (OR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.71–1.35), p = 0.90). Longitudinal regression analyses revealed an inverse association between magnesium and future T2D in the total population (p = 0.035) that was attenuated by LP-IR (p = 0.22). No interactions were detected between magnesium and age, race, BMI, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, or LPIR for the prospective association with future T2D. However, a significant interaction between magnesium and sex was present, now with a trend for an association in men (OR = 0.75 (95% CI 0.55–1.02), p = 0.065 and absence of an association in women (OR = 1.01 (0.76–1.33), p = 0.97). Conclusions: lower ionized magnesium, as measured by an NMR-based assay optimized for accuracy and precision, was associated cross-sectionally with T2D at baseline and longitudinally with incident T2D in IRAS. View Full-Text
Keywords: ionized magnesium; nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; type 2 diabetes ionized magnesium; nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; type 2 diabetes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia, E.; Shalaurova, I.; Matyus, S.P.; Schutten, J.C.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Dullaart, R.P.F.; Connelly, M.A. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Measured Ionized Magnesium Is Inversely Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1792. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091792

AMA Style

Garcia E, Shalaurova I, Matyus SP, Schutten JC, Bakker SJL, Dullaart RPF, Connelly MA. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Measured Ionized Magnesium Is Inversely Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Nutrients. 2022; 14(9):1792. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091792

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garcia, Erwin, Irina Shalaurova, Steven P. Matyus, Joelle C. Schutten, Stephan J. L. Bakker, Robin P. F. Dullaart, and Margery A. Connelly. 2022. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Measured Ionized Magnesium Is Inversely Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study" Nutrients 14, no. 9: 1792. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091792

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