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Article

Fluoride Status and Cardiometabolic Health: Findings from a Representative Survey among Children and Adolescents

1
Institute for Global Food Security (IGFS), School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5DL, UK
2
Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
3
Heidelberg Institute of Global Health (HIGH), University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco Fantin
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071459
Received: 1 March 2022 / Revised: 20 March 2022 / Accepted: 22 March 2022 / Published: 31 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
There is preliminary evidence to suggest a positive association between fluoride exposure and higher blood pressure among children, but population-based biomarker studies are lacking. Thus, data from the 2013/2014 and 2015/2016 cycles of the US-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analysed to evaluate the association between plasma fluoride concentrations and blood pressure among children and adolescents aged 8 to 19 years. Secondary analyses were carried out on fluoride status in relation to further markers of cardio-metabolic health, i.e., anthropometric indices, biomarkers of lipid and sugar metabolism, and C-reactive protein levels. There was a positive correlation between water fluoride content and plasma fluoride concentrations (Spearman’s r = 0.41, p < 0.01). However, multivariable linear regression models did not show significant differences in adjusted mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure across increasing quartiles of fluoride concentrations. Further markers of cardio-metabolic health were not associated with fluoride status, with the exception of a weak inverse association between plasma fluoride and HbA1c levels. Higher plasma fluoride may not be a risk factor for increased blood pressure or impaired cardio-metabolic health among children in the USA, a non-fluoride endemic country, with wide-spread water fluoridation. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluoride; NHANES; blood pressure; HbA1c; lipids; CRP; children; adolescents; C-reactive protein fluoride; NHANES; blood pressure; HbA1c; lipids; CRP; children; adolescents; C-reactive protein
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ballantyne, J.A.; Coyle, G.; Sarwar, S.; Kühn, T. Fluoride Status and Cardiometabolic Health: Findings from a Representative Survey among Children and Adolescents. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1459. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071459

AMA Style

Ballantyne JA, Coyle G, Sarwar S, Kühn T. Fluoride Status and Cardiometabolic Health: Findings from a Representative Survey among Children and Adolescents. Nutrients. 2022; 14(7):1459. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071459

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ballantyne, Jessica A., Gemma Coyle, Sneha Sarwar, and Tilman Kühn. 2022. "Fluoride Status and Cardiometabolic Health: Findings from a Representative Survey among Children and Adolescents" Nutrients 14, no. 7: 1459. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071459

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