Next Article in Journal
Usual Nutrient Intake Distribution and Prevalence of Inadequacy among Australian Children 0–24 Months: Findings from the Australian Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (OzFITS) 2021
Previous Article in Journal
Neuroprotective Effect of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol Derived from Rice Bran Oil against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats
 
 
Article

Diet, Fecal Microbiome, and Trimethylamine N-Oxide in a Cohort of Metabolically Healthy United States Adults

1
Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
USDA-ARS Western Human Nutrition Research Center, 430 West Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071376
Received: 15 February 2022 / Revised: 23 March 2022 / Accepted: 24 March 2022 / Published: 25 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
TMAO is elevated in individuals with cardiometabolic diseases, but it is unknown whether the metabolite is a biomarker of concern in healthy individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study in metabolically healthy adults aged 18–66 years with BMI 18–44 kg/m2 and assessed the relationship between TMAO and diet, the fecal microbiome, and cardiometabolic risk factors. TMAO was measured in fasted plasma samples by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The fecal microbiome was assessed by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and recent food intake was captured by multiple ASA24 dietary recalls. Endothelial function was assessed via EndoPAT. Descriptive statistics were computed by fasting plasma TMAO tertiles and evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between plasma TMAO and dietary food intake and metabolic health parameters. TMAO concentrations were not associated with average intake of animal protein foods, fruits, vegetables, dairy, or grains. TMAO was related to the fecal microbiome and the genera Butyribrio, Roseburia, Coprobaciullus, and Catenibacterium were enriched in individuals in the lowest versus the highest TMAO tertile. TMAO was positively associated with α-diversity and compositional differences were identified between groups. TMAO was not associated with classic cardiovascular risk factors in the healthy cohort. Similarly, endothelial function was not related to fasting TMAO, whereas the inflammatory marker TNF-α was significantly associated. Fasting plasma TMAO may not be a metabolite of concern in generally healthy adults unmedicated for chronic disease. Prospective studies in healthy individuals are necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: trimethylamine n-oxide; TMAO; ASA24; microbiome; TNF-alpha; inflammation; endoPAT; endothelial function trimethylamine n-oxide; TMAO; ASA24; microbiome; TNF-alpha; inflammation; endoPAT; endothelial function
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

James, K.L.; Gertz, E.R.; Cervantes, E.; Bonnel, E.L.; Stephensen, C.B.; Kable, M.E.; Bennett, B.J. Diet, Fecal Microbiome, and Trimethylamine N-Oxide in a Cohort of Metabolically Healthy United States Adults. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1376. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071376

AMA Style

James KL, Gertz ER, Cervantes E, Bonnel EL, Stephensen CB, Kable ME, Bennett BJ. Diet, Fecal Microbiome, and Trimethylamine N-Oxide in a Cohort of Metabolically Healthy United States Adults. Nutrients. 2022; 14(7):1376. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071376

Chicago/Turabian Style

James, Kristen L., Erik R. Gertz, Eduardo Cervantes, Ellen L. Bonnel, Charles B. Stephensen, Mary E. Kable, and Brian J. Bennett. 2022. "Diet, Fecal Microbiome, and Trimethylamine N-Oxide in a Cohort of Metabolically Healthy United States Adults" Nutrients 14, no. 7: 1376. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071376

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop