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Article

Associations of Metabolic and Obstetric Risk Parameters with Timing of Lactogenesis II

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Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1440 Canal Street, M.B. 8318, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
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Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
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Translational Medicine Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 0A4, Canada
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Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 3M7, Canada
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Division of Endocrinology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H2, Canada
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Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON M5T 3L9, Canada
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Departments of Pediatrics, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
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Department of Social, Behavioral, and Population Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ekhard E. Ziegler
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040876
Received: 21 January 2022 / Revised: 16 February 2022 / Accepted: 17 February 2022 / Published: 19 February 2022
Lactogenesis II is the onset of copious milk production following parturition. Delayed onset of lactogenesis II (DLII) often contributes to poorer lactation performance, which may adversely affect maternal and child health. The present study aims to identify the metabolic and obstetric risk factors for DLII in a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study following pregnant women through postpartum. We defined the onset of lactogenesis II as delayed if it occurred ≥72 h postpartum. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations of metabolic and obstetric variables with DLII. Median onset of lactogenesis II was 72.4 h (IQR 60.4–91.6) postpartum, and 55.4% (98 of 177) of women experienced DLII. Time to first breast contact ≥ 2 h postpartum compared to ≤1 h postpartum was associated with DLII (OR 2.71 95% CI 1.12–6.53) with adjustment for age, race, pregravid BMI, primiparity, and mode of delivery, while metabolic variables were not significantly associated with DLII. In this comprehensive examination of potential metabolic and obstetric parameters, earlier timing of putting the infant to the breast remained significantly associated with earlier onset of milk coming in after consideration of the other potential risk factors. Obstetrical practices, including putting the baby to the breast later, may have an important impact on the timing of lactation, and interventions are needed to address this concern. View Full-Text
Keywords: delayed onset of lactogenesis II; DLII; pregnancy; lactation; breastfeeding; human milk; metabolic; obstetric; mother; infant delayed onset of lactogenesis II; DLII; pregnancy; lactation; breastfeeding; human milk; metabolic; obstetric; mother; infant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mullen, A.J.; O’Connor, D.L.; Hanley, A.J.; Piedimonte, G.; Wallace, M.; Ley, S.H. Associations of Metabolic and Obstetric Risk Parameters with Timing of Lactogenesis II. Nutrients 2022, 14, 876. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040876

AMA Style

Mullen AJ, O’Connor DL, Hanley AJ, Piedimonte G, Wallace M, Ley SH. Associations of Metabolic and Obstetric Risk Parameters with Timing of Lactogenesis II. Nutrients. 2022; 14(4):876. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040876

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mullen, Amber J., Deborah L. O’Connor, Anthony J. Hanley, Giovanni Piedimonte, Maeve Wallace, and Sylvia H. Ley. 2022. "Associations of Metabolic and Obstetric Risk Parameters with Timing of Lactogenesis II" Nutrients 14, no. 4: 876. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040876

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