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Article

Changes of 25(OH)D Concentration, Bone Resorption Markers and Physical Performance as an Effect of Sun Exposure, Supplementation of Vitamin D and Lockdown among Young Soccer Players during a One-Year Training Season

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Department of Pediatrics, Diabetology and Endocrinology, Gdansk Medical University, 80-210 Gdansk, Poland
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Department of Health and Natural Sciences, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, 80-336 Gdansk, Poland
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Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Murcia, Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain
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Medbase St. Gallen Am Vadianplatz, 9001 St. Gallen, Switzerland
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Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S4L8, Canada
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Institute of Primary Care, University Hospital Zurich, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Connie Weaver
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030521
Received: 18 December 2021 / Revised: 18 January 2022 / Accepted: 21 January 2022 / Published: 25 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: A Global Perspective for Health)
The main purpose of this research was to demonstrate the changes in 25(OH)D concentration, bone resorption markers, and physical fitness along the one-year training season in young soccer players. A total of 24 young soccer players (age: 17.2 ± 1.16 years, mass: 70.2 ± 5.84, height: 179.1 ± 4.26 cm) were tested at four different time points across one year (T1—September 2019; T2—December 2019; T3—May 2020; T4—August 2020). After T2 (during COVID-19 lockdown), players were divided into a supplemented (GS) group and a placebo group (GP). Variables such as 25(OH)D, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), parathyroid hormone (PTH), aerobic capacity, speed, and explosive power were measured. Analyses performed for all participants indicated significant changes in all selected blood markers and running speed. The highest values in 25(OH)D were noted during summertime in T1 and T4. After individuals were split into two groups, a two-factorial ANOVA demonstrated a significant time interaction for 25(OH)D, Ca, P, PTH, 30 m sprint, and counter-movement jump. Significant time x group effect was calculated for aerobic capacity. This study confirmed that 25(OH)D concentration varies between four seasons, with the greatest decreases in the low sunlight periods. Vitamin D supplementation did not cause a preventive and long-lasting effect of increasing the 25(OH)D concentration in the young soccer players. View Full-Text
Keywords: seasonal variation; blood parameters; training load; home isolation; COVID-19 seasonal variation; blood parameters; training load; home isolation; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jastrzębska, J.; Skalska, M.; Radzimiński, Ł.; López-Sánchez, G.F.; Weiss, K.; Hill, L.; Knechtle, B. Changes of 25(OH)D Concentration, Bone Resorption Markers and Physical Performance as an Effect of Sun Exposure, Supplementation of Vitamin D and Lockdown among Young Soccer Players during a One-Year Training Season. Nutrients 2022, 14, 521. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030521

AMA Style

Jastrzębska J, Skalska M, Radzimiński Ł, López-Sánchez GF, Weiss K, Hill L, Knechtle B. Changes of 25(OH)D Concentration, Bone Resorption Markers and Physical Performance as an Effect of Sun Exposure, Supplementation of Vitamin D and Lockdown among Young Soccer Players during a One-Year Training Season. Nutrients. 2022; 14(3):521. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030521

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jastrzębska, Joanna, Maria Skalska, Łukasz Radzimiński, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez, Katja Weiss, Lee Hill, and Beat Knechtle. 2022. "Changes of 25(OH)D Concentration, Bone Resorption Markers and Physical Performance as an Effect of Sun Exposure, Supplementation of Vitamin D and Lockdown among Young Soccer Players during a One-Year Training Season" Nutrients 14, no. 3: 521. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030521

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