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Article

Bone Mineral Density Changes in Long-Term Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Real-Life Cohort Study of Native Vitamin D Supplementation

1
Department of Medicine, University of Verona, 37129 Verona, Italy
2
Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, Pederzoli Hospital, 37019 Verona, Italy
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Nephrology Unit, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland
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Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara and St. Anna University-Hospital, 44124 Ferrara, Italy
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Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplant Unit, IRCCS—Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
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Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
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Clinica Nefrologica, Dialisi, Trapianto, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, 16142 Genoa, Italy
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Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, Department of Health Sciences, “Magna Graecia” University, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
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Department of Public Health, University Federico II, 80100 Napoli, Italy
10
Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, St. Anna University-Hospital, 44124 Ferrara, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gregory C. Bogdanis and Christoforos D. Giannaki
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020323
Received: 17 December 2021 / Revised: 3 January 2022 / Accepted: 11 January 2022 / Published: 13 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements and Musculoskeletal Health and Function)
Vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in kidney transplant patients (KTRs). However, the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on BMD remains poorly defined, especially for long-term KTRs. We aimed to investigate the effect of native vitamin D supplementation on the BMD of KTRs during a 2-year follow-up. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. BMD was evaluated with standard DEXA that was performed at baseline (before vitamin D supplementation) and at the end of study period. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebral bodies (LV) and right femoral neck (FN) by a single operator. According to WHO criteria, results were expressed as the T-score (standard deviation (SD) relative to young healthy adults) and Z-score (SD relative to age-matched controls). Osteoporosis and osteopenia were defined as a T-score ≤ −2.5 SD and a T-score < −1 and a > −2.5 SD, respectively. Based on plasma levels, 25-OH-vitamin D (25-OH-D) was supplemented as recommended for the general population. Data from 100 KTRs were analyzed. The mean study period was 27.7 ± 3.4 months. At study inception, 25-OH-D insufficiency and deficiency were recorded in 65 and 35 patients. At the basal DEXA, the percentage of osteopenia and osteoporosis was 43.3% and 18.6% at LV and 54.1% and 12.2% at FN, respectively. At the end of the study, no differences in the Z-score and T-score gains were observed. During linear mixed model analysis, native vitamin D supplementation was found to have a negative nitration with Z-score changes at the right femoral neck in KTRs (p < 0.05). The mean dose of administered cholecalciferol was 13.396 ± 7.537 UI per week; increased 25-OH-D levels were found (p < 0.0001). Either low BMD or 25-OH-vitamin D concentration was observed in long-term KTRs. Prolonged supplementation with 25-OH-D did not modify BMD, Z-score, or T-score. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone mineral disease; vitamin D; kidney transplantation; Z-score; T-score; femoral neck; lumbar vertebral bodies; DEXA; KDIGO guidelines bone mineral disease; vitamin D; kidney transplantation; Z-score; T-score; femoral neck; lumbar vertebral bodies; DEXA; KDIGO guidelines
MDPI and ACS Style

Battaglia, Y.; Bellasi, A.; Bortoluzzi, A.; Tondolo, F.; Esposito, P.; Provenzano, M.; Russo, D.; Andreucci, M.; Cianciolo, G.; Storari, A. Bone Mineral Density Changes in Long-Term Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Real-Life Cohort Study of Native Vitamin D Supplementation. Nutrients 2022, 14, 323. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020323

AMA Style

Battaglia Y, Bellasi A, Bortoluzzi A, Tondolo F, Esposito P, Provenzano M, Russo D, Andreucci M, Cianciolo G, Storari A. Bone Mineral Density Changes in Long-Term Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Real-Life Cohort Study of Native Vitamin D Supplementation. Nutrients. 2022; 14(2):323. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020323

Chicago/Turabian Style

Battaglia, Yuri, Antonio Bellasi, Alessandra Bortoluzzi, Francesco Tondolo, Pasquale Esposito, Michele Provenzano, Domenico Russo, Michele Andreucci, Giuseppe Cianciolo, and Alda Storari. 2022. "Bone Mineral Density Changes in Long-Term Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Real-Life Cohort Study of Native Vitamin D Supplementation" Nutrients 14, no. 2: 323. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020323

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