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Article

Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude towards ‘Superfood’ Kale and Its Health Benefits among Arab Adults

1
Department of Food Science & Nutrition, College of Food Science & Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia
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Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020245
Received: 31 October 2021 / Revised: 3 January 2022 / Accepted: 5 January 2022 / Published: 7 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
This cross-sectional online survey aimed to determine the awareness of Arab adults on the benefits of consuming nutrient-dense foods, such as kale. A total of 1200 respondents completed the survey. The questionnaire included questions related to socio-economic information, e.g., whether the participants have consumed kale, if they observed any health effects, and 13 other questions to test their knowledge on this superfood. Only 276 (23%) of the participants had previously consumed kale, with 64.5% reporting favorable health outcomes, the most common of which was weight reduction, and only 17.8% reporting side effects, such as constipation and gastrointestinal irritation. From the 13 kale knowledge questions, the average total knowledge score, scaled from 0 to 10, was 3.5 and 3.7 for males and females, respectively. The regression analysis revealed that age, income, and educational status were significant contributors for predicting better knowledge scores, as older individuals with a higher income and higher education scored higher (odds ratio of 2.96, 2.00 and 4.58, respectively). To summarize, there is a dearth of awareness about kale and its health benefits in Saudi Arabia. Kale should be promoted as a super food in all segments, particularly among the younger, lower-income, and less-educated sections of the population. View Full-Text
Keywords: kale; superfood; obesity; Saudi Arabia; nutrient-dense kale; superfood; obesity; Saudi Arabia; nutrient-dense
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alfawaz, H.A.; Wani, K.; Alrakayan, H.; Alnaami, A.M.; Al-Daghri, N.M. Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude towards ‘Superfood’ Kale and Its Health Benefits among Arab Adults. Nutrients 2022, 14, 245. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020245

AMA Style

Alfawaz HA, Wani K, Alrakayan H, Alnaami AM, Al-Daghri NM. Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude towards ‘Superfood’ Kale and Its Health Benefits among Arab Adults. Nutrients. 2022; 14(2):245. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020245

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alfawaz, Hanan A., Kaiser Wani, Haya Alrakayan, Abdullah M. Alnaami, and Nasser M. Al-Daghri. 2022. "Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude towards ‘Superfood’ Kale and Its Health Benefits among Arab Adults" Nutrients 14, no. 2: 245. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020245

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