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Article

Association between Parental Feeding Styles and Excess Weight, and Its Mediation by Diet, in Costa Rican Adolescents

1
Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2
Nutrition and Health Unit, Costa Rican Institute for Research and Education on Nutrition and Health (INCIENSA), Ministry of Health, Tres Rios 4-2250, Costa Rica
3
Psychological Research Institute, Universidad de Costa Rica, City of Research, Montes de Oca 11501-2060, Costa Rica
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hirofumi Tanaka
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2314; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112314
Received: 29 April 2022 / Revised: 28 May 2022 / Accepted: 28 May 2022 / Published: 31 May 2022
Background. Whereas parental feeding styles (PFS) influence children’s diet, less is known about this relationship in adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study in 686 Costa Rican adolescents (13–18 years) evaluated 4 validated PFS scores: healthy eating verbal encouragement; scolding; directly controlling diet; instrumental/emotional. Diet was evaluated through 3-day food records, deriving a Traditional Costa Rica Adolescents Diet Score (TCRAD). Excess weight (EW) measured by BMI was dichotomized following standards. Regression-based mediation analysis estimated the overall and sex-stratified odds ratios of EW for natural direct (NDE), natural indirect (NIE), and total effects (TE) of the pathway PFS→TCRAD→EW. Results. A one-unit increase in the direct control PFS score was associated with higher EW odds overall [(TE: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.04–2.31; p-value = 0.033), (NDE: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.02–2.27; p-value = 0.039)], and in boys [(TE: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.04–4.38; p-value = 0.039), (NDE: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.03–4.31; p-value = 0.042)]. Non-significant mediation by TCRAD was observed for the healthy eating verbal encouragement PFS overall (p-value = 0.06). Associations for the instrumental/emotional and scolding PFS were not significant. Conclusions. Direct diet control from parents may contribute to adolescents’ excess weight, particularly among boys. Parents encouraging healthy eating might support adolescents’ healthy weight through a healthy diet. Longitudinal research should clarify the association between PFS and diet-related outcomes among diverse adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: parental feeding styles; diet; mediation; excess weight; adolescents; Costa Rica parental feeding styles; diet; mediation; excess weight; adolescents; Costa Rica
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mendoza-Herrera, K.; Monge-Rojas, R.; O’Neill, J.; Smith-Castro, V.; Mattei, J. Association between Parental Feeding Styles and Excess Weight, and Its Mediation by Diet, in Costa Rican Adolescents. Nutrients 2022, 14, 2314. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112314

AMA Style

Mendoza-Herrera K, Monge-Rojas R, O’Neill J, Smith-Castro V, Mattei J. Association between Parental Feeding Styles and Excess Weight, and Its Mediation by Diet, in Costa Rican Adolescents. Nutrients. 2022; 14(11):2314. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112314

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mendoza-Herrera, Kenny, Rafael Monge-Rojas, June O’Neill, Vanessa Smith-Castro, and Josiemer Mattei. 2022. "Association between Parental Feeding Styles and Excess Weight, and Its Mediation by Diet, in Costa Rican Adolescents" Nutrients 14, no. 11: 2314. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112314

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