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The Association of Formula Protein Content and Growth in Early Infancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

by 1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 2,3, 2,3, 2,3, 2,3, 1,2, 2,3,4,* and 1,2,*
1
Innovation Center, Nutrition and Metabolism Research Division, Heilongjiang Feihe Dairy Co., Ltd., C-16, 10A Jiuxianqiao Rd., Chaoyang, Beijing 100015, China
2
PKUHSC-China Feihe Joint Research Institute of Nutrition and Healthy Lifespan Development, Xueyuan Road 38, Haidian, Beijing 100083, China
3
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Xueyuan Road 38, Haidian, Beijing 100083, China
4
Beijing Key Laboratory of Toxicological Research and Risk Assessment for Food Safety, Peking University, Xueyuan Road 38, Haidian, Beijing 100083, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112255
Received: 20 April 2022 / Revised: 23 May 2022 / Accepted: 26 May 2022 / Published: 28 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Metabolism in the First 1,000 Days of Life)
This systematic review aimed to examine differences in growth outcomes between breastfed infants and infants fed with formula with different protein/energy ratios during the first six months of life. We conducted a systematic review in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Springer databases. Twenty clinical trials qualified for inclusion. We extracted data about the growth outcomes of infants who were exclusive breastfed or exclusively infant formula fed in the first six months and used a meta-analysis to pool the finding data. We categorized study formulas into four groups according to their protein content: <1.8, 1.8–2.0, 2.1–2.2, and >2.2 g/100 kcal. In the first month of life, growth was not different between formula- and breastfed infants. During 2–3 months of life, growth was faster in infants who consumed formulas with protein contents higher than 2.0 g/100 kcal. After 3 months, formula-fed infants grew faster than breastfed infants. Our meta-analysis indicated that the growth outcomes of infants fed with infant formula with a relatively low protein/energy ratios, compared with that a relatively high protein/energy ratio, were close to those of breastfed infants. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant formula; protein/energy ratio; breastfed; weight gain; height gain infant formula; protein/energy ratio; breastfed; weight gain; height gain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ren, Q.; Li, K.; Sun, H.; Zheng, C.; Zhou, Y.; Lyu, Y.; Ye, W.; Shi, H.; Zhang, W.; Xu, Y.; Jiang, S. The Association of Formula Protein Content and Growth in Early Infancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2022, 14, 2255. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112255

AMA Style

Ren Q, Li K, Sun H, Zheng C, Zhou Y, Lyu Y, Ye W, Shi H, Zhang W, Xu Y, Jiang S. The Association of Formula Protein Content and Growth in Early Infancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2022; 14(11):2255. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112255

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ren, Qiqi, Kaifeng Li, Han Sun, Chengdong Zheng, Yalin Zhou, Ying Lyu, Wanyun Ye, Hanxu Shi, Wei Zhang, Yajun Xu, and Shilong Jiang. 2022. "The Association of Formula Protein Content and Growth in Early Infancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Nutrients 14, no. 11: 2255. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112255

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