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Article

Suboptimal Consumption of Relevant Immune System Micronutrients Is Associated with a Worse Impact of COVID-19 in Spanish Populations

by 1,2,3,*, 1,2,3 and 1,2,3,4
1
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Nutrition and Biotechnology (Nutrigenomics, Biomarkers and Risk Evaluation–NuBE), University of the Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma, Spain
2
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Health Research Institute of the Balearic Islands (IdISBa), 07120 Palma, Spain
4
Alimentómica S.L., Spin-off n.1 of the University of the Balearic Islands, 07121 Palma, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dina Bellizzi
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112254
Received: 27 April 2022 / Revised: 23 May 2022 / Accepted: 26 May 2022 / Published: 27 May 2022
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global health crisis and the factors behind its differential impact on COVID-19 among populations are still being known. Geographical differences in nutrient profile could be a relevant factor, especially considering that scientific evidence supports that 10 micronutrients are essential for proper immune system function. This study aims to evaluate these micronutrient intakes in the territories of Spain and to analyze their relationship with epidemiological indicators of COVID-19 from the first two waves of COVID-19, when neither specific vaccines nor drugs had yet come into play. Results showed that vitamin D, A, B9, and zinc intakes were particularly insufficient in Spain. The joint intake of these four micronutrients was lower in regions with the highest COVID-19 incidence and mortality, and of particular importance, was the insufficient intake of vitamin D. A pattern of food consumption associated with lower COVID-19 impact was observed. In conclusion, the results show the relevance of the optimal consumption of foods rich in essential nutrients for the immune system. Therefore, this assessment could serve to launch specific dietary recommendations to strengthen the immune system in Spanish territories to better face potential new COVID-19 variants and/or further infectious diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrition; micronutrients; vitamin D; COVID-19; public health; epidemiology nutrition; micronutrients; vitamin D; COVID-19; public health; epidemiology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Galmés, S.; Palou, A.; Serra, F. Suboptimal Consumption of Relevant Immune System Micronutrients Is Associated with a Worse Impact of COVID-19 in Spanish Populations. Nutrients 2022, 14, 2254. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112254

AMA Style

Galmés S, Palou A, Serra F. Suboptimal Consumption of Relevant Immune System Micronutrients Is Associated with a Worse Impact of COVID-19 in Spanish Populations. Nutrients. 2022; 14(11):2254. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112254

Chicago/Turabian Style

Galmés, Sebastià, Andreu Palou, and Francisca Serra. 2022. "Suboptimal Consumption of Relevant Immune System Micronutrients Is Associated with a Worse Impact of COVID-19 in Spanish Populations" Nutrients 14, no. 11: 2254. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112254

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