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Article

Intakes of Folate, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 in Relation to All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A National Population-Based Cohort

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The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000, China
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School of Public Health, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310013, China
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NHC Key Laboratory of Birth Defects Prevention, Henan Key Laboratory of Population Defects Prevention, Zhengzhou 450000, China
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The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ebba Nexø
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112253
Received: 25 March 2022 / Revised: 19 May 2022 / Accepted: 25 May 2022 / Published: 27 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
The evidence regarding the intake of dietary folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in relation to mortality in the general population is limited. This study aimed to examine the relationship between dietary intakes of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a large U.S. cohort. This study included a total of 55,569 adults from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and NHANES 1999–2014. Vital data were determined by linking with the National Death Index records through 31 December 2015. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the relationships of all-cause and cause-specific mortality with dietary folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 intake. Dietary intakes of folate and vitamin B6 were inversely associated with mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer for men and with mortality from all-cause and cardiovascular disease for women. In men, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest versus lowest quintiles of folate and vitamin B6 were 0.77 (0.71–0.85) and 0.79 (0.71–0.86) for all-cause mortality, 0.59 (0.48–0.72) and 0.69 (0.56–0.85) for CVD mortality, and 0.68 (0.56–0.84) and 0.73 (0.60–0.90) for cancer mortality, respectively. Among women, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest versus lowest quintiles of folate and vitamin B6 were 0.86 (0.78–0.95) and 0.88 (0.80–0.97) for all-cause mortality and 0.53 (0.41–0.69) and 0.56 (0.44–0.73) for CVD mortality, respectively. No significant associations between dietary vitamin B12 and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were observed. In conclusion, higher dietary intakes of folate and vitamin B6 were significantly associated with lower all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Our findings suggest that increasing the intake of folate and vitamin B6 may lower the mortality risk among U.S. adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; folate; vitamin B6; vitamin B12; mortality diet; folate; vitamin B6; vitamin B12; mortality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bo, Y.; Xu, H.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Wan, Z.; Zhao, X.; Yu, Z. Intakes of Folate, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 in Relation to All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A National Population-Based Cohort. Nutrients 2022, 14, 2253. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112253

AMA Style

Bo Y, Xu H, Zhang H, Zhang J, Wan Z, Zhao X, Yu Z. Intakes of Folate, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 in Relation to All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A National Population-Based Cohort. Nutrients. 2022; 14(11):2253. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112253

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bo, Yacong, Huadong Xu, Huanhuan Zhang, Junxi Zhang, Zhongxiao Wan, Xin Zhao, and Zengli Yu. 2022. "Intakes of Folate, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 in Relation to All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A National Population-Based Cohort" Nutrients 14, no. 11: 2253. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112253

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