Exploring the Geographic Variation in Fruit and Vegetable Purchasing Behaviour Using Supermarket Transaction Data
- Examine the small-area spatial distribution of fruit and vegetable purchases and predictors of this purchase behaviour
- Explore associations at a neighbourhood level between mean daily fruit and vegetable portions purchased and area socioeconomic characteristics, customer demographics, and access to supermarkets.
- Develop a statistical model that identifies drivers of fruit and vegetable purchasing at a neighbourhood level.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Sample
2.2. Study Region
2.3. Transaction Data
2.4. Estimating Fruit and Vegetable Purchases
3.1. Customer Characteristics
3.2. Fruit and Vegetable Purchases in Leeds
3.3. Neighbourhood Characteristics
3.4. Spatial Patterns in Fruit and Vegetable Purchasing
3.5. Linear Regression
4.1. Policy Relevance
4.2. Future Directions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Category Description 1||LCFS Category (LCFS Code)|
|Carbohydrate products||Bread and cereals (1.1.1)|
|Cakes and biscuits||Buns, cakes, biscuits etc (1.1.3)|
|Meat and fish||Meat (1.1.5–1.1.10), Fish (1.1.11)|
|Dairy||Milk, cheese, eggs (1.1.12–1.1.15)|
|Fats||Oils and fats (1.1.16–1.1.18)|
|Vegetables and salad||Vegetables (1.1.23–1.1.27)|
|Sweets||Sugar, jam, honey, chocolate confectionary (1.1.28–1.1.32)|
|Other (e.g., spices)||Other foods (1.1.33)|
|Non-alcoholic beverages||Non-alcoholic beverages (1.2)|
|Alcoholic beverages||Alcoholic beverages (2.1)|
|Ready foods||N/A—additional category not present in the LCFS|
|Baby food||N/A—additional category not present in the LCFS|
|Crisps and nuts||N/A—additional category not present in the LCFS|
|Meat free and free from foods||N/A—additional category not present in the LCFS|
|Characteristic||Study Population||Leeds Population 1||Mean Daily Portions of FV Purchased Per Household (SD)|
|Whole sample||50,917 (100.0)||751,485 (100)||3.40 (3.06)|
|Gender||Male||14,539 (28.6)||367,933 (49.0)||3.22 (2.98)|
|Female||32,342 (63.5)||383,550 (51.0)||3.45 (3.10)|
|Unknown||4036 (7.9)||-||3.69 (3.07)|
|Age band||18–44||16,268 (32.0)||269,582 (35.9)||2.96 (2.80)|
|45–64||19,614 (38.5)||172,964 (23.0)||3.58 (3.27)|
|65+||10,817 (21.2)||109,598 (14.6)||3.64(2.99)|
|Unknown||4218 (8.3)||-||3.65 (3.04)|
|IMD decile||1||3621 (7.1)||186,995 (23.8)||2.80 (2.57)|
|2||2035 (4.0)||75,224 (9.6)||2.70 (2.47)|
|3||2669 (5.2)||70,571 (9.0)||2.77 (2.56)|
|4||1903 (3.7)||33,388 (4.3)||2.86 (2.81)|
|5||3769 (7.4)||83,694 (10.7)||2.92 (2.66)|
|6||4770 (9.4)||68,864 (8.8)||3.20 (3.00)|
|7||7650 (15.0)||89,670 (11.4)||3.48 (3.11)|
|8||7573 (14.9)||63,366 (8.1)||3.47 (3.10)|
|9||8974 (17.6)||62,882 (8.0)||3.84 (3.26)|
|10||7953 (15.6)||50,192 (6.4)||3.92 (3.33)|
|Output area Classification Supergroup||Rural Residents||1428 (2.8)||12,844 (1.6)||3.58 (3.11)|
|Cosmopolitans||3839 (7.5)||80,788 (10.3)||2.58 (2.39)|
|Ethnicity Central||731 (1.4)||28,615 (3.7)||2.88 (2.48)|
|Multicultural Metropolitans||4889 (9.6)||140,250 (18.0)||3.21 (2.98)|
|Urbanites||14,784 (29.0)||161,993 (20.7)||3.50 (3.10)|
|Suburbanites||18,445 (36.2)||160,366 (20.5)||3.77 (3.27)|
|Constrained City Dwellers||1949 (3.8)||71,244 (9.1)||2.67 (2.47)|
|Hard-pressed Living||4852 (9.5)||124,987 (16.0)||2.88 (2.72)|
|Characteristic of Loyalty Card Holder||Mean (SD)1 Median (IQR)||Univariate Moran’s I (Clustering)||p-Value (Moran’s I)||Kendall’s Tau rank Correlation with Outcome||p-Value (Kendall’s Tau)|
|Mean household daily portions of FV purchased||3.0 (0.7)||0.5||0.001||-||-|
|female (% of sample)||63.6 (8.1)||0.1||0.006||0.0||0.515|
|aged 18–44 years (% of sample)||34.3 (15.3)||0.4||0.001||−0.3||<0.001|
|% aged 45–64 years (% of sample)||38.6 (9.8)||0.2||0.001||0.1||0.002|
|% aged 65+ years (% of sample)||19.1 (9.8)||0.3||0.001||0.3||<0.001|
|IMD decile||5.2 (3.1)||0.6||0.001||0.5||<0.001|
|Rural Residents (% of sample)||0.0 (0.0, 0.0)1||0.3||0.001||0.2||<0.001|
|Cosmopolitans (% of sample)||0.0 (0.0, 0.0)1||0.7||0.001||−0.1||0.066|
|Ethnicity Central (% of sample)||0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 1||0.6||0.001||−0.1||<0.001|
|Multicultural Metropolitans (% of sample)||0.0 (0.0, 20.3) 1||0.6||0.001||−0.1||<0.001|
|Urbanites (% of sample)||0.0 (0.0, 41.6) 1||0.3||0.001||0.2||<0.001|
|Suburbanites (% of sample)||0.0 (0.0, 45.3) 1||0.4||0.001||0.4||<0.001|
|Constrained City Dwellers (% of sample)||0.0 (0.0, 7.1) 1||0.2||0.001||−0.3||<0.001|
|Hard-pressed Living (% of sample)||0.0 (0.0, 24.4) 1||0.2||0.001||−0.2||<0.001|
|Mean distance to nearest store (km)||1.7 (0.9, 2.8) 1||0.8||0.001||0.1||<0.001|
|Mean distance to most used store (km)||11.2 (6.4, 17.6) 1||0.4||0.001||−0.1||<0.001|
|Mean total monthly spend (£)||104.3 (19.1)||0.5||0.001||0.7||<0.001|
|Shopping frequency (mean monthly trips)||5.0 (4.4, 6.0) 1||0.4||0.001||−0.1||<0.001|
|OLS Regression, n = 439 LSOAs|
(Adj R2: 85.8%)
|Variable 2||Coefficient (95% CI)||p-Value|
|Intercept||−0.565 (−0.918, −0.213)||0.003|
|Mean monthly spend (£)||0.031 (0.029, 0.032)||<0.001|
|% aged 65+ years||0.005 (0.002, 0.008)||0.002|
|IMD decile||0.045 (0.028, 0.061)||<0.001|
|Shopping frequency (mean monthly trips)||0.026 (−0.001, 0.053)||0.066|
|% female||−0.003 (−0.007, −0.000)||0.057|
|Distance to nearest store (km)||0.006 (−0.021, 0.033)||0.654|
|Distance to most-used store (km)||0.001 (−0.001, 0.003)||0.280|
|% Rural Residents||−0.003 (−0.006, 0.001)||0.126|
|% Cosmopolitans||0.003 (0.001, 0.005)||0.011|
|% Ethnicity Central||0.004 (0.001, 0.007)||0.005|
|% Multicultural Metropolitans||0.002 (0.001, 0.003)||0.003|
|% Urbanites||0.002 (0.001, 0.003)||0.008|
|% Suburbanites||0.001 (−0.001, 0.002)||0.436|
|% Constrained City Dwellers||−0.002 (−0.003, 0.000)||0.093|
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Jenneson, V.; Clarke, G.P.; Greenwood, D.C.; Shute, B.; Tempest, B.; Rains, T.; Morris, M.A. Exploring the Geographic Variation in Fruit and Vegetable Purchasing Behaviour Using Supermarket Transaction Data. Nutrients 2022, 14, 177. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010177
Jenneson V, Clarke GP, Greenwood DC, Shute B, Tempest B, Rains T, Morris MA. Exploring the Geographic Variation in Fruit and Vegetable Purchasing Behaviour Using Supermarket Transaction Data. Nutrients. 2022; 14(1):177. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010177Chicago/Turabian Style
Jenneson, Victoria, Graham P. Clarke, Darren C. Greenwood, Becky Shute, Bethan Tempest, Tim Rains, and Michelle A. Morris. 2022. "Exploring the Geographic Variation in Fruit and Vegetable Purchasing Behaviour Using Supermarket Transaction Data" Nutrients 14, no. 1: 177. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010177