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Review

The Role of Dietary Fats in the Development and Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

1
Neonatal Nutrition and Gastroenterology Program, Department of Pediatrics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 2T9, Canada
2
Nutrition Services, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB T2N 2T9, Canada
3
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 2T9, Canada
4
International Microbiome Centre, Cumming School of Medicine, Health Sciences Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 2T9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea Fabbri
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010145
Received: 28 November 2021 / Revised: 21 December 2021 / Accepted: 26 December 2021 / Published: 29 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Interventions of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Newborns)
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. The pathogenesis of NEC is not completely understood; however, intestinal immaturity and excessive immunoreactivity of intestinal mucosa to intraluminal microbes and nutrients appear to have critical roles. Dietary fats are not only the main source of energy for preterm infants, but also exert potent effects on intestinal development, intestinal microbial colonization, immune function, and inflammatory response. Preterm infants have a relatively low capacity to digest and absorb triglyceride fat. Fat may thereby accumulate in the ileum and contribute to the development of NEC by inducing oxidative stress and inflammation. Some fat components, such as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), also exert immunomodulatory roles during the early postnatal period when the immune system is rapidly developing. LC-PUFAs may have the ability to modulate the inflammatory process of NEC, particularly when the balance between n3 and n6 LC-PUFAs derivatives is maintained. Supplementation with n3 LC-PUFAs alone may have limited effect on NEC prevention. In this review, we describe how various fatty acids play different roles in the pathogenesis of NEC in preterm infants. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty acids; necrotizing enterocolitis; intestinal inflammation; preterm infants fatty acids; necrotizing enterocolitis; intestinal inflammation; preterm infants
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alshaikh, B.N.; Reyes Loredo, A.; Knauff, M.; Momin, S.; Moossavi, S. The Role of Dietary Fats in the Development and Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Nutrients 2022, 14, 145. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010145

AMA Style

Alshaikh BN, Reyes Loredo A, Knauff M, Momin S, Moossavi S. The Role of Dietary Fats in the Development and Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Nutrients. 2022; 14(1):145. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010145

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alshaikh, Belal N., Adriana Reyes Loredo, Megan Knauff, Sarfaraz Momin, and Shirin Moossavi. 2022. "The Role of Dietary Fats in the Development and Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis" Nutrients 14, no. 1: 145. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010145

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