Plyometric exercise (PE) is an effective training method to increase muscle mass and strength. However, excessive or inappropriate conditions might cause exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Resveratrol (RES) is a natural polyphenol plant antitoxin, which improves exercise performance, and exhibits anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of RES supplementation on the recovery of muscle damage, inflammation, soreness, muscle power, and anaerobic performance following plyometric-exercise-induced muscle damage (PEIMD). The present study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled research trial. Thirty-six young, untrained males were enrolled into the placebo (n
= 12), RES-500 (500 mg RES/day, n
= 12), or RES-1000 (1000 mg RES/day, n
= 12) group by a jumping height-counterbalanced grouping design. At baseline, to pre-PEIMD, supplements were pre-loaded 7 days before they conducted PEIMD, and the exercise performance, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and muscle damage biomarkers were measured over the experimental period at baseline, pre-PEIMD, and post-PEIMD at 2, 24, 48, and 72 h. As a result, we found that, at 72 h post-EIMD, the force peak (FP) and rate of force development (RFD) of the counter movement jump (CMJ) in RES groups showed no significant difference compared to that at baseline but was significantly greater than the placebo group. In the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), supplementation in the RES group had a better recovery effect on the relative peak power (RPP), relative mean power (RMP) and fatigue index (FI) (p
< 0.05), especially in the high-dose group. For the detection of muscle pain after PEIMD, the RES supplement group was significantly better than the placebo group (p
< 0.05). In addition, for muscle damage indexes, such as creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), after PEIMD, supplementation with RES could significantly reduce and accelerate recovery (p
< 0.05). In addition, the blood biochemical indicators of blood count, liver function, and kidney function showed that RES will not cause adverse risks to the human body. Our results suggest that replenishing RES in advance could effectively reduce muscle pain, increase exercise performance, and decrease muscle damage indicators caused by PEIMD, and the recovery was faster. Therefore, plyometric exercises combined with suitable RES supplementation could be an effective candidate for controlling muscle damage, improving physical adaption, and recovering anaerobic capacity.