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Article

Dietary Protein Requirement Threshold and Micronutrients Profile in Healthy Older Women Based on Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass

1
Musculoskeletal Science and Sports Medicine Research Centre, Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M15 6BH, UK
2
Department of Movement Sciences, Physical Activity, Sports & Health Research Group, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
3
Department of Life Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M15 6BH, UK
4
Institute of Sport Science and Innovations, Lithuanian Sports University, LT-44221 Kaunas, Lithuania
5
Pharmacy of Targu Mures, University of Medicine, 540142 Targu Mures, Romania
6
Institute of Sport, Exercise and Health, University College London, London W1T 7HA, UK
7
Applied Sports Science Technology and Medicine Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Indicates the authors have contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Sergi
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3076; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093076
Received: 7 August 2021 / Revised: 28 August 2021 / Accepted: 29 August 2021 / Published: 1 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Protein)
Although multiple nutrients have shown protective effects with regard to preserving muscle function, the recommended amount of dietary protein and other nutrients profile on older adults for maintenance of high muscle mass is still debatable. The aims of this paper were to: (1) identify dietary differences between older women with low and high relative skeletal muscle mass, and (2) identify the minimal dietary protein intake associated with high relative skeletal muscle mass and test the threshold ability to determine an association with skeletal muscle phenotypes. Older women (n = 281; 70 ± 7 years, 65 ± 14 kg), with both low and high relative skeletal muscle mass groups, completed a food questionnaire. Skeletal muscle mass, fat-free mass (FFM), biceps brachii thickness, vastus lateralis anatomical cross-sectional area (VLACSA), handgrip strength (HGS), maximum elbow flexion torque (MVCEF), maximum knee extension torque (MVCKE), muscle quality (HGS/Body mass), and fat mass were measured. Older women with low relative skeletal muscle mass had a lower daily intake of protein, iodine, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), Vit E, manganese, milk, fish, nuts and seeds (p < 0.05) compared to women with high relative skeletal muscle mass. The minimum required dietary protein intake for high relative skeletal muscle mass was 1.17 g/kg body mass/day (g/kg/d) (sensitivity: 0.68; specificity: 0.62). Women consuming ≥1.17 g/kg/d had a lower BMI (B = −3.9, p < 0.001) and fat mass (B = −7.8, p < 0.001), and a higher muscle quality (B = 0.06, p < 0.001). The data indicate that to maintain muscle mass and function, older women should consume ≥1.17 g/kg/d dietary protein, through a varied diet including milk, fish and nuts that also contain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and micronutrients such as iodine, Vit E and manganese. View Full-Text
Keywords: pre-sarcopenia; musculoskeletal health; protein pre-sarcopenia; musculoskeletal health; protein
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khanal, P.; He, L.; Degens, H.; Stebbings, G.K.; Onambele-Pearson, G.L.; Williams, A.G.; Thomis, M.; Morse, C.I. Dietary Protein Requirement Threshold and Micronutrients Profile in Healthy Older Women Based on Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3076. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093076

AMA Style

Khanal P, He L, Degens H, Stebbings GK, Onambele-Pearson GL, Williams AG, Thomis M, Morse CI. Dietary Protein Requirement Threshold and Micronutrients Profile in Healthy Older Women Based on Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass. Nutrients. 2021; 13(9):3076. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093076

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khanal, Praval, Lingxiao He, Hans Degens, Georgina K. Stebbings, Gladys L. Onambele-Pearson, Alun G. Williams, Martine Thomis, and Christopher I. Morse 2021. "Dietary Protein Requirement Threshold and Micronutrients Profile in Healthy Older Women Based on Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass" Nutrients 13, no. 9: 3076. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093076

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