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Association of Walnut Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality and Life Expectancy in U.S. Adults

1
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
3
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
4
Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Peter Pribis and Emilio Ros
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2699; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082699
Received: 15 June 2021 / Revised: 28 July 2021 / Accepted: 30 July 2021 / Published: 4 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Walnut consumption is associated with health benefits. We aimed to (1) examine the association between walnut consumption and mortality and (2) estimate life expectancy in relation to walnut consumption in U.S. adults. We included 67,014 women of the Nurses’ Health Study (1998–2018) and 26,326 men of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1998–2018) who were free of cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During up to 20 years of follow-up, we documented 30,263 deaths. The hazard ratios for total mortality across categories of walnut intake (servings/week), as compared to non-consumers, were 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91, 0.98) for <1 serving/week, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89, 0.99) for 1 serving/week, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.82, 0.93) for 2–4 servings/week, and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.79, 0.93) for >=5 servings/week (p for trend <0.0001). A greater life expectancy at age 60 (1.30 years in women and 1.26 years in men) was observed among those who consumed walnuts more than 5 servings/week compared to non-consumers. Higher walnut consumption was associated with a lower risk of total and CVD mortality and a greater gained life expectancy among U.S. elder adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: nuts; walnut; mortality; cardiovascular death; life expectancy nuts; walnut; mortality; cardiovascular death; life expectancy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, X.; Guasch-Ferré, M.; Tobias, D.K.; Li, Y. Association of Walnut Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality and Life Expectancy in U.S. Adults. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2699. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082699

AMA Style

Liu X, Guasch-Ferré M, Tobias DK, Li Y. Association of Walnut Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality and Life Expectancy in U.S. Adults. Nutrients. 2021; 13(8):2699. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082699

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Xiaoran, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Deirdre K. Tobias, and Yanping Li. 2021. "Association of Walnut Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality and Life Expectancy in U.S. Adults" Nutrients 13, no. 8: 2699. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082699

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