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Article

Low Protein Intakes and Poor Diet Quality Associate with Functional Limitations in US Adults with Diabetes: A 2005–2016 NHANES Analysis

1
Medical Dietetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
2
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Sam Houston State University, Conroe, TX 77304, USA
3
School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luigi Palla
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082582
Received: 3 June 2021 / Revised: 22 July 2021 / Accepted: 24 July 2021 / Published: 27 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Assessment and Chronic Disease)
Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk for sarcopenia. Moreover, sarcopenia correlates with increased risk for falls, fractures, and mortality. This study aimed to explore relationships among nutrient intakes, diet quality, and functional limitations in a sample of adults across levels of glycemic control. Data were examined from 23,487 non-institutionalized adults, 31 years and older, from the 2005–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Hemoglobin A1c (%) was used to classify level of glycemic control: non-diabetes (<5.7%); pre-diabetes (5.7–6.4%); diabetes (≥6.5%). Dietary data were collected from a single 24-h dietary recall. Participants were categorized as meeting or below the protein recommendation of 0.8 g/kg of body weight. Physical functioning was assessed across 19-discrete physical tasks. Adults below the protein recommendation consumed significantly more carbohydrate and had lower diet quality across all glycemic groups compared to those who met the protein recommendation (p < 0.001). Adults with diabetes who did not meet protein recommendations had significantly poorer diet quality and significantly higher mean number of functional limitations. A greater percent of adults with diabetes who did not meet the protein recommendation reported being physically limited for most activities, with more than half (52%) reporting limitations for stooping, crouching, and kneeling. This study underscores the potential for physical limitations associated with low protein intakes, especially in adults with diabetes. In the longer term, low protein intakes may result in increased risk of muscle loss, as protein intake is a critical nutritional factor for prevention of sarcopenia, functional limitations, and falls. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; protein; diet quality; dietary patterns; NHANES; sarcopenia; physical limitations diabetes; protein; diet quality; dietary patterns; NHANES; sarcopenia; physical limitations
MDPI and ACS Style

Fanelli, S.M.; Kelly, O.J.; Krok-Schoen, J.L.; Taylor, C.A. Low Protein Intakes and Poor Diet Quality Associate with Functional Limitations in US Adults with Diabetes: A 2005–2016 NHANES Analysis. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2582. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082582

AMA Style

Fanelli SM, Kelly OJ, Krok-Schoen JL, Taylor CA. Low Protein Intakes and Poor Diet Quality Associate with Functional Limitations in US Adults with Diabetes: A 2005–2016 NHANES Analysis. Nutrients. 2021; 13(8):2582. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082582

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fanelli, Stephanie M., Owen J. Kelly, Jessica L. Krok-Schoen, and Christopher A. Taylor 2021. "Low Protein Intakes and Poor Diet Quality Associate with Functional Limitations in US Adults with Diabetes: A 2005–2016 NHANES Analysis" Nutrients 13, no. 8: 2582. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082582

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